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Raf kinases are essential for regulating cell proliferation, survival, and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms by which Raf is activated are still incompletely understood. Phosphorylation plays a critical role in Raf activation in response to mitogens. The present study characterizes phosphorylation of Ser338, a crucial event for Raf-1 activation. Here(More)
BACKGROUND Although over 1400 Salmonella serovars cause usually self-limited gastroenteritis in humans, a few, e.g., Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi C, cause typhoid, a potentially fatal systemic infection. It is not known whether the typhoid agents have evolved from a common ancestor (by divergent processes) or acquired similar pathogenic traits(More)
The role of the MEK1-ERK signaling cascade in the replication cycle of Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), has been analyzed. In vitro infection with EV71 induced a biphasic activation of ERK. The two phases of activation appeared to be triggered by different mechanisms, with the first phase being activated by(More)
In order to find novel antiviral agents, a series of allosteric MEK1 inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Based on docking results, multiple optimizations were made on the coumarin scaffold. Some of the derivatives showed excellent MEK1 binding affinity in the appropriate enzymatic assays and displayed obvious inhibitory effects on the ERK pathway in a(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Agona is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing serious human illness worldwide, but knowledge about its genetics and evolution, especially regarding the genomic events that might have contributed to the formation of S. Agona as an important pathogen, is lacking. As a first step toward understanding this pathogen and(More)
During infection, viruses hijack various host cell components and programs for their amplification, among which is the canonical ERK signaling pathway, mainly consisting of three tiered serine/threonine kinases, Raf, MEK and ERK. MEK1 and MEK2 are two isoforms of the kinase operating immediately upstream of ERK, and connecting Raf and ERK by phosphorylating(More)
It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing(More)
Cellular p53 and its downstream mediator p21, the major cellular growth suppression and DNA repair markers, have recently been implicated in viral amplification. Here, we show that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection of both HCT116 p53(+/+)and NIH3T3 cells resulted in sustained increases of p21. HSV-2 infection did not increase cellular p53(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of Picornaviridae, is one of the major pathogens of human hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 mainly infects children and causes severe neurological complications and even death. The pathogenesis of EV71 infection is largely unknown, and no clinically approved vaccine or effective treatment is available to date. Here we(More)
The activation of ERK and p38 signal cascade in host cells has been demonstrated to be essential for picornavirus enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication and up-regulation of virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) expression. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sorafenib, a clinically approved anti-cancer multi-targeted(More)