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The tear film, lacrimal glands, corneal and conjunctival epithelia and Meibomian glands work together as a lacrimal functional unit (LFU) to preserve the integrity and function of the ocular surface. The integrity of this unit is necessary for the health and normal function of the eye and visual system. Nervous connections and systemic hormones are well(More)
NK cells have been increasingly reported to be an important effector in autoimmune diseases. However, nothing is known in this regard in DED, the most common eye pathology, which is characterized by sustained inflammation on the ocular surface. In the present study, we have examined the profile of NK cells on the ocular surface as well as in the draining(More)
Atrial fibrosis, the hallmark of structural remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of atrial fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/Smad2/3/4 pathway has been reported to be involved in the process.(More)
PURPOSE Th17 cells are believed to be the primary effector cells in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). However, the mechanisms by which Th17 cells migrate from the lymphoid tissues to the ocular surface are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the C-C chemokine receptor 6/C-C chemokine ligand 20 (CCR6/CCL20) chemokine(More)
PURPOSE We characterized antigen-presenting cell (APC)-relevant chemokine receptor expression in dry eye disease (DED), and investigated the effect of topical CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-7 blockade specifically on Th17 cell immunity and dry eye disease severity. METHODS We induced DED in female C57BL/6 mice. Chemokine receptor expression by corneal APCs(More)
Recent experimental and clinical data suggest that there is a link between dry eye disease (DED) and T-cell-mediated immunity. However, whether these immune responses are a consequence or cause of ocular surface inflammation remains to be determined. Thus far, only models of acute DED have been used to derive experimental data. This is in contrast to(More)
PURPOSE To analyze the effect of a resolvin D1 (RvD1) analogue (RvD1a) on dendritic cell maturation, T-cell sensitization, and allograft rejection in corneal allotransplantation. METHODS The receptor expression of RvD1 (ALX/FPR2) on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. We determined BMDC maturation(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effect of phosphodiesterase type-4 (PDE4) inhibition on IL-17-associated immunity in experimental dry eye disease (DED). METHODS Murine DED was induced, after which a PDE4 inhibitor (cilomilast), dexamethasone, cyclosporine, or a relevant vehicle was administered topically. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and flow(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to establish and characterize extraorbital lacrimal gland excision (LGE) as a model of aqueous tear-deficient dry eye disease in mice. METHODS Female C57BL/6 mice at 6 to 8 weeks of age were randomized to extraorbital LGE, sham surgery, or scopolamine groups. Mice that underwent extraorbital LGE or sham surgery were(More)
To investigate the effect of VEGF-C and VEGF-D blockade via soluble VEGFR-3 (sVEGFR-3) on T cell allosensitization, corneal neovascularization, and transplant survival. Corneal intrastromal suture placement and allogeneic transplantation were performed on BALB/c mice to evaluate the effect of sVEGFR-3 on corneal neovascularization. Soluble VEGFR-3 trap was(More)