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CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) systems are a bacterial defence against invading foreign nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages or exogenous plasmids. These systems use an array of small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) consisting of repetitive sequences flanking unique spacers to recognize their targets, and(More)
Neisseria meningitidis expresses a heterogeneous population of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) inner cores variously substituted with alpha1-3-linked glucose and O-3, O-6, and O-7 linked phosphoethanolamine (PEA), as well as glycine, attached to HepII. Combinations of these attachments to the LOS inner core represent immunodominant epitopes that are being(More)
Meningococcal lipopoly(oligo)saccharide (LOS) is a major inflammatory mediator of fulminant meningococcal sepsis and meningitis. Highly purified wild-type meningococcal LOS and LOS from genetically defined mutants of Neisseria meningitidis that contained specific mutations in LOS biosynthesis pathways were used to confirm that meningococcal LOS activation(More)
Individual fluorescent molecules and individual singly labeled proteins were observed in the water-filled pores of poly(acrylamide) gels by far-field microscopy. Brownian motion was markedly reduced by the gel framework, thus enabling extended study of single fluorophores in aqueous environments. A highly axially dependent laser field was used both to(More)
The human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis remains a serious worldwide health threat, but progress is being made toward the control of meningococcal infections. This review summarizes current knowledge of the global epidemiology and the pathophysiology of meningococcal disease, as well as recent advances in prevention by new vaccines. Meningococcal(More)
We have located a locus, pgl, in Neisseria meningitidis strain NMB required for the glycosylation of class II pili. Between five and eight open reading frames (ORFs) (pglF, pglB, pglC, pglB2, orf2, orf3, orf8, and avtA) were present in the pgl clusters of different meningococcal isolates. The Class I pilus-expressing strains Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11 and(More)
MD-2, a eukaryotic accessory protein, is an essential component for the molecular pattern recognition of bacterial endotoxins. MD-2 interacts with lipid A of endotoxins [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS)] to activate human toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. The structure of lipid A influences the subsequent activation of human TLR4 and the(More)
We compared exemplar strains from two hypervirulent clonal complexes, strain NMB-CDC from ST-8/11 cc and strain MC58 from ST-32/269 cc, in host cell attachment and invasion. Strain NMB-CDC attached to and invaded host cells at a significantly greater frequency than strain MC58. Type IV pili retained the primary role for initial attachment to host cells for(More)
In this Letter, we described two small RNAs (scaRNA and tracrRNA) within the Francisella novicida CRISPR/Cas locus that are necessary for repression of an endogenous transcript. Concurrent to our studies, E. Charpentier's group performed RNA sequencing analyses of multiple type II CRISPR loci to identify tracrRNA in F. novicida and other species 1 , based(More)
Flow cytometry holds promise to accelerate antibiotic susceptibility determinations; however, without robust multidimensional statistical analysis, general discrimination criteria have remained elusive. In this study, a new statistical method, probability binning signature quadratic form (PB-sQF), was developed and applied to analyze flow cytometric data of(More)
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