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The virally encoded protease of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for specific cleavage events leading to the liberation of the enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase, ribonuclease H, and the core proteins from the gag-pol and gag polyprotein precursors. Utilizing gag polyprotein synthesized in vitro, we have shown that this substrate is(More)
The nucleoprotein (NP) of the influenza virus exists as trimers, and its tail-loop binding pocket has been suggested as a potential target for antiinfluenza therapeutics. The possibility of NP as a drug target was validated by the recent reports that nucleozin and its analogs can inhibit viral replication by inducing aggregation of NP trimers. However,(More)
Oseltamivir phosphonic acid (tamiphosphor, 3a), its monoethyl ester (3c), guanidino-tamiphosphor (4a), and its monoethyl ester (4c) are potent inhibitors of influenza neuraminidases. They inhibit the replication of influenza viruses, including the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y strain, at low nanomolar to picomolar levels, and significantly protect mice from(More)
Intracellular proteases from sporulating Bacillus cereus have been purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, heat treatment and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. After the last purification step, two protease activities, with an activity ratio of about thirty to one are resolved. Both proteases are resistant to o-phenanthroline but sensitive to phenyl(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease caused by a novel human coronavirus. Currently, no effective antiviral agents exist against this type of virus. A cell-based assay, with SARS virus and Vero E6 cells, was developed to screen existing drugs, natural products, and synthetic compounds to identify effective anti-SARS agents. Of(More)
Recent cases of avian influenza H5N1 and the swine-origin 2009 H1N1 have caused a great concern that a global disaster like the 1918 influenza pandemic may occur again. Viral transmission begins with a critical interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which is on the viral coat of influenza, and sialic acid (SA) containing glycans, which are on(More)
Influenza infections are initiated by the binding of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and the cellular receptor sialic acids. The binding is followed by internalization, endocytosis, and uncoating to release the influenza genome to the cytoplasm. It is conceivable that specific inhibitors that antagonize any one of these events could prevent the replication(More)
For the treatment of influenza virus infections, neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) that prevent the release of virus particles have been effective against most influenza strains. Several neuraminidase (NA) assays are available for the evaluation of NAIs. To understand the NAI functions under physiological conditions, assays mimicking viral particle release(More)
Two phosphonate compounds 1a (4-amino-1-phosphono-DANA) and 1b (phosphono-zanamivir) are synthesized and shown more potent than zanamivir against the neuraminidases of avian and human influenza viruses, including the oseltamivir-resistant strains. For the first time, the practical synthesis of these phosphonate compounds is realized by conversion of sialic(More)
As influenza viruses have developed resistance towards current drugs, new inhibitors that prevent viral replication through different inhibitory mechanisms are useful. In this study, we developed a screening procedure to search for new antiinfluenza inhibitors from 1,200,000 compounds and identified previously reported as well as new antiinfluenza(More)