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Human cerebral cortical function degrades during old age. Much of this change may result from a degradation of intracortical inhibition during senescence. We used multibarreled microelectrodes to study the effects of electrophoretic application of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the GABA type a (GABAa) receptor agonist muscimol, and the GABAa receptor(More)
To evaluate the effects of perceptual learning on contrast-sensitivity function and visual acuity in adult observers with amblyopia, 23 anisometropic amblyopes with a mean age of 19.3 years were recruited and divided into three groups. Subjects in Group I were trained in grating detection in the amblyopic eye near pre-training cut-off spatial frequency.(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that training adult amblyopes in simple visual tasks leads to significant improvements of their spatial vision. One critical question is: How much can training with one particular stimulus and task generalize to other stimuli and tasks? In this study, we estimated the bandwidth of perceptual learning in teenage and adult(More)
Senescence in monkeys results in a degradation of the functional properties of cortical cells as well as prolonged hyperactivity. We have now compared the spontaneous and visually evoked activity levels, as well as the visual response latencies of cells in cortical areas V1 and V2 of young and very old monkeys. We found that V1 cells within layer 4 exhibit(More)
Visual function declines with age. Using extracellular single-unit in vivo recordings, we compared the function of primary visual cortical (area 17) cells in young and old paralyzed, anesthetized cats. The results reveal that cortical neurons in old cats exhibit higher visually evoked responses, higher spontaneous activities, lower signal-to-noise ratios,(More)
The ability to accurately perceive the direction and speed of moving objects declines during normal aging. This is likely due to functional degradation of cortical neurons. Most neurons in the primate middle temporal area (MT) are direction-selective and their activity is closely linked to the perception of coherent motion. We investigated the mechanisms(More)
Human perception of speed declines with age. Much of the decline is probably mediated by changes in the middle temporal (MT) area, an extrastriate area whose neural activity is linked to the perception of speed. In the present study, we used random-dot patterns to study the effects of aging on speed-tuning curves in cortical area MT of macaque visual(More)
Repeated treatment of psychotropic drugs produces changes in brain and behavior that far outlast their initial neuropharmacological effects. The nature of persistent drug-induced neural plasticity is of interest because it is thought to contribute to the development of drug dependency and addiction. To determine if chronic morphine treatment alters the(More)
Functional degradation of mammalian visual cortex is associated with aging. It has been hypothesized that much of the decline might be mediated by a degradation of cortical inhibitory system during senescence. In the present work, we compared the properties of adaptation, onset latency and signal-to-noise ratio in primary visual cortex of young and old rats(More)