Learn More
Human cerebral cortical function degrades during old age. Much of this change may result from a degradation of intracortical inhibition during senescence. We used multibarreled microelectrodes to study the effects of electrophoretic application of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the GABA type a (GABAa) receptor agonist muscimol, and the GABAa receptor(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that training adult amblyopes in simple visual tasks leads to significant improvements of their spatial vision. One critical question is: How much can training with one particular stimulus and task generalize to other stimuli and tasks? In this study, we estimated the bandwidth of perceptual learning in teenage and adult(More)
To evaluate the effects of perceptual learning on contrast-sensitivity function and visual acuity in adult observers with amblyopia, 23 anisometropic amblyopes with a mean age of 19.3 years were recruited and divided into three groups. Subjects in Group I were trained in grating detection in the amblyopic eye near pre-training cut-off spatial frequency.(More)
Visual function declines with age. Using extracellular single-unit in vivo recordings, we compared the function of primary visual cortical (area 17) cells in young and old paralyzed, anesthetized cats. The results reveal that cortical neurons in old cats exhibit higher visually evoked responses, higher spontaneous activities, lower signal-to-noise ratios,(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) plays important roles in cancer development and aggression. Our previous studies revealed a strong association between the MMP-2 -1306C/T polymorphism and risk of several cancers. A novel -735C/T polymorphism in MMP-2 promoter has been identified but the function is undefined. This study examined our hypothesis that these(More)
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been shown to play important roles in multiple ways in all stages of cancer initiation and development. Single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in the promoters of MMP2 (-1306C-->T) and TIMP2 (-418G-->C) abolish the Sp1-binding site and thus may down-regulate(More)
The tumor suppressor TP53 pathway plays a crucial role in preventing carcinogenesis through its ability to impose cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following DNA damage and oncogene activation. MDM2 is a key negative regulator of the TP53 pathway and is overexpressed in many cancers as oncoprotein. We investigated the association between genetic variation in(More)
Antitumor T lymphocytes play a pivotal role in immunosurveillance of malignancy. The CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a vital negative regulator of T-cell activation and proliferation. This study examined whether genetic polymorphisms in CTLA-4 are associated with cancer susceptibility. A two-stage investigation using haplotype-tagging single nucleotide(More)
The ability to accurately perceive the direction and speed of moving objects declines during normal aging. This is likely due to functional degradation of cortical neurons. Most neurons in the primate middle temporal area (MT) are direction-selective and their activity is closely linked to the perception of coherent motion. We investigated the mechanisms(More)