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Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a promising method for embedded systems to exploit multiple voltage and frequency levels and to prolong battery life. However, pure DVS techniques do not perform well for systems with dynamic workloads where the job execution times vary significantly. We present a novel approach combining feedback control with DVS schemes(More)
RNA interference is widely distributed in eukaryotes and has a variety of functions, including antiviral defence and gene regulation. All RNA interference pathways use small single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules that guide proteins of the Argonaute (Ago) family to complementary ssRNA targets: RNA-guided RNA interference. The role of prokaryotic Ago variants(More)
CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that provides sequence-specific defense against foreign nucleic acids. Here we report the structure and function of the effector complex of the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system of Thermus thermophilus: the Csm complex (TtCsm). TtCsm is composed of five different protein subunits (Csm1-Csm5) with an uneven(More)
The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtCmr complex copurifies with crRNA species of 40 and 46 nt,(More)
Embedded systems have limited energy resources. Hence, they should conserve these resources to extend their period of operation. Recently, dynamic frequency scaling (DFS) and dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) have been added to a various embedded processors as a means to increase battery life. A number of scheduling techniques have been developed to exploit DFS(More)
Many embedded systems are constrained by limits on power consumption, which are reflected in the design and implementation for conserving their energy utilization. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has become a promising method for embedded systems to exploit multiple voltage and frequency levels and to prolong their battery life. However, pure DVS techniques(More)
Recent processor support for dynamic frequency and voltage scaling (DVS) allows software to affect power consumption by varying execution frequency and supply voltage on the fly. However, processors generally enter a sleep state while transitioning between frequencies/voltages. In this paper, we examine the merits of hardware/software co-design for a(More)
Adaptive immunity in bacteria involves RNA-guided surveillance complexes that use CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated (Cas) proteins together with CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to target invasive nucleic acids for degradation. Whereas type I and type II CRISPR-Cas surveillance complexes target double-stranded DNA, type III(More)
Simulating the evolution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic requires a detailed description of the population network, especially for small populations in which individuals can be represented in detail and accuracy. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a Complex Agent Network(CAN) to model the HIV epidemics by combining agent-based(More)