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We have developed an approach for determining NMR structures of proteins over 20 kDa that utilizes sparse distance restraints obtained using transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy experiments on perdeuterated samples to guide RASREC Rosetta NMR structure calculations. The method was tested on 11 proteins ranging from 15 to 40 kDa, seven of which were(More)
We describe an improved method for comparative modeling, RosettaCM, which optimizes a physically realistic all-atom energy function over the conformational space defined by homologous structures. Given a set of sequence alignments, RosettaCM assembles topologies by recombining aligned segments in Cartesian space and building unaligned regions de novo in(More)
We show that comprehensive sequence-function maps obtained by deep sequencing can be used to reprogram interaction specificity and to leapfrog over bottlenecks in affinity maturation by combining many individually small contributions not detectable in conventional approaches. We use this approach to optimize two computationally designed inhibitors against(More)
Multiconformation continuum electrostatics (MCCE) explores different conformational degrees of freedom in Monte Carlo calculations of protein residue and ligand pK(a)s. Explicit changes in side chain conformations throughout a titration create a position dependent, heterogeneous dielectric response giving a more accurate picture of coupled ionization and(More)
We describe a general approach for refining protein structure models on the basis of cryo-electron microscopy maps with near-atomic resolution. The method integrates Monte Carlo sampling with local density-guided optimization, Rosetta all-atom refinement and real-space B-factor fitting. In tests on experimental maps of three different systems with 4.5-Å(More)
Very few chemical enhancers for transdermal drug delivery have been approved for clinical use due to irritancy and toxicity concerns. Novel chemical enhancers (iminosulfuranes) were synthesized and studied for their activity and toxicity. Skin was treated with 0.4 M 1–5 for 1 h before hydrocortisone was applied. Samples were taken over 24 h and analyzed by(More)
We describe the identification and characterization of novel homing endonucleases using genome database mining to identify putative target sites, followed by high throughput activity screening in a bacterial selection system. We characterized the substrate specificity and kinetics of these endonucleases by monitoring DNA cleavage events with deep(More)
What conformations do protein molecules populate in solution? Crystallography provides a high-resolution description of protein structure in the crystal environment, while NMR describes structure in solution but using less data. NMR structures display more variability, but is this because crystal contacts are absent or because of fewer data constraints?(More)
Accurate energy functions are critical to macromolecular modeling and design. We describe new tools for identifying inaccuracies in energy functions and guiding their improvement, and illustrate the application of these tools to the improvement of the Rosetta energy function. The feature analysis tool identifies discrepancies between structures deposited in(More)
A hybrid protocol combining Rosetta fullatom refinement and Multi-Conformation Continuum Electrostatics (MCCE) to estimate pK(a) is applied to the blind prediction of 94 mutated residues in Staphylococcal nuclease (SNase), as part of the pK(a)-cooperative benchmark test. The standard MCCE method is limited to sidechain conformational changes. The Rosetta(More)