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Adenosine deaminase is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism and its inhibitors are used as anticancer and antiviral drugs. In this study, we show that fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes can be used to study the kinetics of adenosine deaminase by electrochemically monitoring decreases in adenosine concentration. Buffer and salt(More)
Polymer membrane electrodes operated by pulsed chronopotentiometry have recently been introduced to replace traditional ion-selective electrodes for a number of applications. While ion-selective electrodes for the polycation protamine have been reported, for instance, a pulsed chronopotentiometric readout mode (called here pulstrode) provides improved(More)
The operation of ion channel sensors is mimicked with functionalized polymeric membrane electrodes, using a surface confined affinity reaction to impede the electrochemically imposed ion transfer kinetics of a marker ion. A membrane surface biotinylated by covalent attachment to the polymeric backbone is used here to bind to the protein avidin as a model(More)
The development of non-precious-metal electrocatalysts with high activity, stability and low-cost towards oxygen reduction reaction remains a great challenge. The heteroatom-doped carbon materials as effective catalysts obtained increasing research attention. However, the uncontrollable doping type of heteroatoms in carbon matrix inhibited the catalysts'(More)
Polymeric membrane ion-selective electrodes are normally interrogated by zero current potentiometry, and their selectivity is understood to be primarily dependent on an extraction/ion-exchange equilibrium between the aqueous sample and polymeric membrane. If concentration gradients in the contacting diffusion layers are insubstantial, the membrane response(More)
A recent new direction in ion-selective electrode (ISE) research utilizes a stir effect to indicate the disappearance of an ion concentration gradient across a thin ion-selective membrane. This zeroing experiment allows one to evaluate the equilibrium relationship between front and backside solutions contacting the membrane by varying the backside solution(More)
A new direction in potentiometric sensing, termed backside calibration potentiometry, was recently introduced. It makes use of the fact that the stir effect disappears in the absence of an ion-ionophore complex concentration gradient across supported liquid ion-selective membranes. This method is especially suitable for measurements in which recalibration(More)