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In early simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections, gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT), the largest component of the lymphoid organ system, is a principal site of both virus production and depletion of primarily lamina propria memory CD4+ T cells; that is, CD4-expressing T cells that previously encountered(More)
Ethylene is a gaseous phytohormone that plays vital roles in plant growth and development. Previous studies uncovered EIN2 as an essential signal transducer linking ethylene perception on ER to transcriptional regulation in the nucleus through a "cleave and shuttle" model. In this study, we report another mechanism of EIN2-mediated ethylene signaling,(More)
Plant immunity against foreign gene invasion takes advantage of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). How plants elaborately avert inappropriate PTGS of endogenous coding genes remains unclear. We demonstrate in Arabidopsis that both 5'-3' and 3'-5' cytoplasmic RNA decay pathways act as repressors of transgene and endogenous PTGS. Disruption of(More)
Although network traces of virtual worlds are valuable to ISPs (Internet service providers), virtual world software developers, and research communities, they do not exist in the public domain. In this work, we implement a complete testbed to efficiently collect and analyze network traces from a popular virtual world: Second Life. We use the testbed to(More)
We design, implement, and evaluate an H.264/SVC decoder and an HTTP video streaming client on multi-core mobile devices. The decoder employs multiple decoder threads to leverage the multi-core CPUs, and the streaming server/client support adaptive HTTP video streaming. To evaluate the decoder performance, we conduct experiments using real H.264/SVC videos(More)
Healthcare organizations are looking for opportunities to create new business model and value that can be implemented through information technology (IT) enabled transformation. Big data, an overwhelming phenomenon which has been addressed through various new and old data management technologies, hold the key to healthcare transformation. To address this,(More)
Osmotic stress caused by drought and soil salinity is one of the factors that affect plant root system growth and development. Previous studies have shown that microtubule plays a critical role in plant roots response to osmotic stress, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the microtubule orientations in Arabidopsis roots(More)
The advent of smart phones, along with the paradigm shift towards cloud-based services, presents new challenges to the cellular backbone infrastructure. Cisco predicts that mobile data traffic will double every year through 2014, with a CAGR of 108% from 2009 to 2014, reaching 3.6 exabytes per month. We propose to exploit the potential of smart phones in(More)