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Regional cerebral protein synthesis was investigated in the Mongolian gerbil during recovery from forebrain ischemia produced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 5 min. At various recirculation periods up to 72 h animals received a single dose of L-(3,5-3H)tyrosine and were killed 30 min later. Brains were processed for autoradiography using(More)
We investigated the link between direct activation of inhibitory neurons, local neuronal activity, and hemodynamics. Direct optogenetic cortical stimulation in the sensorimotor cortex of transgenic mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 in GABAergic neurons (VGAT-ChR2) greatly attenuated spontaneous cortical spikes, but was sufficient to increase blood flow as(More)
Excitotoxic activation of glutamate receptors is thought to be a key event for the molecular pathogenesis of postischemic delayed neuronal death of CA-1 neurons in the gerbil hippocampus. Glutamate receptor stimulation also causes induction of transcription factors that belong to the class of immediate early genes. We examined the expression of six(More)
We have developed an approach to directly probe neuronal excitability during the period beginning with induction of global ischemia and extending after reperfusion using transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to activate deep layer cortical neurons independent of synaptic or sensory stimulation. Spontaneous, ChR2, or forepaw stimulation-evoked(More)
Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) (also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway for mammalian biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). By synthesizing NAD(+), PBEF functions to maintain an energy supply that has critical roles in cell survival. Cerebral ischemia is a major(More)
Regional cerebral protein synthesis was investigated in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats during progressive insulin-induced hypoglycemia and the recovery period following glucose infusion. Polysome profiles from precomatose animals with slow wave/polyspike EEG revealed a slight reduction of polyribosomes and a concurrent increase in monoribosomes,(More)
UNLABELLED Wide-field-of-view mesoscopic cortical imaging with genetically encoded sensors enables decoding of regional activity and connectivity in anesthetized and behaving mice; however, the kinetics of most genetically encoded sensors can be suboptimal for in vivo characterization of frequency bands higher than 1-3 Hz. Furthermore, existing sensors, in(More)
Prolonged insulin-induced hypoglycemia causes widespread loss of neurons and permanent brain damage with irreversible coma. Although the deprivation of carbohydrate stores affects all brain regions, the breakdown of energy metabolism and cessation of protein synthesis occur predominantly in the cerebral cortex, caudoputamen and hippocampus. The cerebellum,(More)
Recently we have shown that despite reperfusion, sensory processing exhibits persistent deficits after global ischemia in a mouse in vivo model. We now address how motor output, specifically cortically evoked muscle activity, stimulated by channelrhodopsin-2 is affected by global ischemia and reperfusion. We find that the light-based optogenetic motor map(More)
We studied the acute (up to 2 hours after reperfusion) effects of localized cortical hypothermia on ischemia-induced dendritic structural damage. Moderate (31°C) and deep (22°C) hypothermia delays, but does not block the onset of dendritic blebbing or spine loss during global ischemia in mouse in vivo. Hypothermic treatment promoted more consistent recovery(More)