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The P2X(7) purinoceptor is a ligand-gated cation channel, expressed predominantly by cells of immune origin, with a unique phenotype which includes release of biologically active inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1beta following activation, and unique ion channel biophysics observed only in this receptor family. Here we demonstrate that in mice(More)
BACKGROUND While multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are primarily inflammatory and degenerative disorders respectively, there is increasing evidence for shared cellular mechanisms that may affect disease progression, particularly glial responses. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition prolongs survival and cannabinoids ameliorate(More)
BACKGROUND The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1), provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the(More)
P2X(3) is a novel ATP-gated cation channel that is selectively expressed by small-diameter sensory neurones in rodents, and may play a role in nociception by binding ATP released from damaged or inflamed tissues. We have studied, for the first time, P2X(3) immunoreactivity in human inflammatory bowel disease, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.(More)
OBJECTIVE The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1) may play an important role in visceral pain and hypersensitivity states. In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abdominal pain is a common and distressing symptom where the pathophysiology is still not clearly defined. TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibres were investigated in(More)
BACKGROUND The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 (SNS1/PN3) is expressed by nociceptors and may play a role in pain states. METHODS Using specific antibodies for immunohistochemistry, we studied Nav1.8 immunoreactivity in human dental pulp in relation to the neuronal marker neurofilament. Human tooth pulp was extracted from teeth(More)
Vulvodynia is characterised by painful burning sensation, allodynia and hyperalgesia in the region of the vulval vestibulus. While in many patients the cause of vulvodynia remains uncertain, we and others have previously shown increased intraepithelial and papillary innervation in vulvodynia. The vanilloid receptor VR1 (TRPV1) is expressed by nociceptors,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies show that inflammatory processes may contribute to neuropathic pain. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inducible enzyme responsible for production of prostanoids, which may sensitise sensory neurones via the EP1 receptor. We have recently reported that while macrophages infiltrate injured nerves within days of injury, they express(More)
BACKGROUND The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2 R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. METHODS We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2 R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects(More)
The regional distributions of neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide histidine-methionine (PHM), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactivities in the human female genital tract have been estimated by specific radioimmunoassays, and their molecular forms determined by chromatography. The localisation and distribution of these three peptides was(More)