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The P2X(7) purinoceptor is a ligand-gated cation channel, expressed predominantly by cells of immune origin, with a unique phenotype which includes release of biologically active inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1beta following activation, and unique ion channel biophysics observed only in this receptor family. Here we demonstrate that in mice(More)
P2X(3) is a novel ATP-gated cation channel that is selectively expressed by small-diameter sensory neurones in rodents, and may play a role in nociception by binding ATP released from damaged or inflamed tissues. We have studied, for the first time, P2X(3) immunoreactivity in human inflammatory bowel disease, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.(More)
BACKGROUND The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2 R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. METHODS We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2 R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects(More)
Vulvodynia is characterised by painful burning sensation, allodynia and hyperalgesia in the region of the vulval vestibulus. While in many patients the cause of vulvodynia remains uncertain, we and others have previously shown increased intraepithelial and papillary innervation in vulvodynia. The vanilloid receptor VR1 (TRPV1) is expressed by nociceptors,(More)
BACKGROUND The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 (SNS1/PN3) is expressed by nociceptors and may play a role in pain states. METHODS Using specific antibodies for immunohistochemistry, we studied Nav1.8 immunoreactivity in human dental pulp in relation to the neuronal marker neurofilament. Human tooth pulp was extracted from teeth(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies show that inflammatory processes may contribute to neuropathic pain. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inducible enzyme responsible for production of prostanoids, which may sensitise sensory neurones via the EP1 receptor. We have recently reported that while macrophages infiltrate injured nerves within days of injury, they express(More)
BACKGROUND While multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are primarily inflammatory and degenerative disorders respectively, there is increasing evidence for shared cellular mechanisms that may affect disease progression, particularly glial responses. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition prolongs survival and cannabinoids ameliorate(More)
Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists provide the potential for treating chronic pain states without CNS effects associated with CB1 receptor activation. Animal models suggest that they act mainly via non-neuronal cells, possibly inhibition of inflammatory cells in the periphery or CNS, or via release of beta-endorphin; however, the clinical relevance and(More)
Vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) is expressed by sensory neurons. Once activated, these neurons evoke the sensation of burning pain and release neuropeptides that induce neurogenic inflammation. We used immunoblotting and immunostaining to estimate the density of VR1 in colonic tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and of controls. Our study results(More)
Two tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels, SNS/PN3 and SNS2/NaN, have been described recently in small-diameter sensory neurones of the rat, and play a key role in neuropathic pain. Using region-specific antibodies raised against different peptide sequences of their alpha subunits, we show by Western blot evidence for the presence of these(More)