Yi-ying Chou

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The Influenza A virus genome consists of eight negative sense, single-stranded RNA segments. Although it has been established that most virus particles contain a single copy of each of the eight viral RNAs, the packaging selection mechanism remains poorly understood. Influenza viral RNAs are synthesized in the nucleus, exported into the cytoplasm and travel(More)
The cytosolic pathogen sensor RIG-I is activated by RNAs with exposed 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp) and terminal double-stranded structures, such as those that are generated during viral infection. RIG-I has been shown to translocate on dsRNA in an ATP-dependent manner. However, the precise role of the ATPase activity in RIG-I activation remains unclear. Using(More)
Influenza virus-like particles are currently evaluated in clinical trials as vaccine candidates for influenza viruses. Most commonly they are produced in baculovirus- or mammalian- expression systems. Here we used different vaccination schemes in order to systematically compare virus-like particle preparations generated in the two systems. Our work shows(More)
Influenza A virus possesses a segmented genome of eight negative-sense, single-stranded RNAs. The eight segments have been shown to be represented in approximately equal molar ratios in a virus population; however, the exact copy number of each viral RNA segment per individual virus particles has not been determined. We have established an experimental(More)
The genomes of influenza A viruses consist of eight negative-strand RNA segments. Recent studies suggest that influenza viruses are able to specifically package their segmented genomes into the progeny virions. Segment-specific packaging signals of influenza virus RNAs (vRNAs) are located in the 5' and 3' noncoding regions, as well as in the terminal(More)
A remarkable feature of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is its efficient transmissibility in humans compared to that of precursor strains from the triple-reassortant swine influenza virus lineage, which cause only sporadic infections in humans. The viral components essential for this phenotype have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed(More)
Influenza A viruses encoding an altered viral NS1 protein have emerged as promising live attenuated vaccine platforms. A carboxy-terminal truncation in the NS1 protein compromises its interferon antagonism activity, making these viruses attenuated in the host yet still able to induce protection from challenge with wild-type viruses. However, specific viral(More)
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides important to innate host defense. In addition to their direct antimicrobial effect, defensins modulate immune responses. Increasing evidence indicates that defensins exhibit complex functions by positively or negatively modulating infections of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The effects of defensins on viral(More)
Epidemic influenza is typically caused by infection with viruses of the A and B types and can result in substantial morbidity and mortality during a given season. Here we demonstrate that influenza B viruses can replicate in the upper respiratory tract of the guinea pig and that viruses of the two main lineages can be transmitted with 100% efficiency(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a debilitating disease resulting from infection of oligodendrocytes by the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). Currently, there is no anti-viral therapeutic available against JCPyV infection. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system (CRISPR/Cas9)(More)