Learn More
Drug use and relapse involve learned associations between drug-associated environmental cues and drug effects. Extinction procedures in the clinic can suppress conditioned responses to drug cues, but the extinguished responses typically reemerge after exposure to the drug itself (reinstatement), the drug-associated environment (renewal), or the passage of(More)
Relapse to drug seeking was studied using a rodent model of reinstatement induced by exposure to drug-related cues. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth and survival by controlling translation in response to nutrients and growth factors, has been demonstrated to be involved in neuronal(More)
Extinction therapy has been suggested to suppress the conditioned motivational effect of drug cues to prevent relapse. However, extinction forms a new inhibiting memory rather than erasing the original memory trace and drug memories invariably return. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are a specialized extracellular matrix around interneurons in the brain that have(More)
Heroin use has seriously threatened public heath in many countries, but the existing therapies continue to have many limitations. Recently, immunotherapy has shown efficacy in some clinical studies, including vaccines against nicotine and cocaine, but no opioid vaccines have been introduced in clinical studies. The development of a novel opioid antigen(More)
Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session(More)
We recently reported that a conditioned stimulus (CS) memory retrieval-extinction procedure decreases reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking in rats and heroin craving in humans. Here we show that non-contingent cocaine or methylphenidate injections (UCS retrieval) 1 h before the extinction sessions decreases cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement,(More)
BACKGROUND Currently approved medications for opioid addiction have shown clinical efficacy, but undesired side effects, dependence induced by the medications themselves, and low treatment compliance necessitate the need for novel therapies. METHODS A novel morphine-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine was synthesized with 6-glutarylmorphine as the(More)
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder with the hallmark of a high rate of relapse to compulsive drug seeking and drug taking even after long-term abstinence. Addiction has been considered as an aberrant memory that has been termed "addiction memory." Drug-related memory plays a critical role in the maintenance of learned addictive behaviors and(More)
Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0 h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after(More)
The persistence of physical dependence and craving in addicts is considered to contribute to relapse. Increasing evidence indicates that neuropeptide systems are associated with several phases of drug addiction, but little is known about whether the neuropeptide trefoil factor affects withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to investigate the potential effects(More)