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BACKGROUND The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass(More)
Muscle represents an attractive target tissue for adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene transfer for hemophilia B (HB). Experience with direct intramuscular (i.m.) administration of AAV vectors in humans showed that the approach is safe but fails to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Here, we present a careful evaluation of the safety profile(More)
Immune responses directed against viral capsid proteins constitute a main safety concern in the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as gene transfer vectors in humans. Pharmacological immunosuppression has been proposed as a solution to the problem; however, the approach suffers from several potential limitations. Using MHC class II epitopes initially(More)
Liver gene transfer for hemophilia B has shown very promising results in recent clinical studies. A potential complication of gene-based treatments for hemophilia and other inherited disorders, however, is the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against the therapeutic transgene. The risk of developing NAb to the coagulation factor IX (F.IX)(More)
Antibodies against adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are highly prevalent in humans. Both preclinical and clinical studies showed that antibodies against AAV block transduction even at low titers, particularly when the vector is introduced into the bloodstream. Here we measured the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against AAV serotypes 2, 5, 6 and 8 in(More)
The plant hormone ethylene regulates growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, various genomic and proteomic approaches have been initiated to understand both the range of ethylene responses in the plant and the mechanism of signal transduction. Transcriptional profiling experiments reveal broad-ranging effects of ethylene upon gene(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the variations in the microbial community structure of soil actinomycetes in fields with continuous cropping of cotton in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. Soil samples were collected from four depths in fields with 7-year continuous cotton cropping. The community structure of soil actinomycetes was examined using(More)
The influences of low-head dams on the fish assemblages were examined in this study, using fish data collected in six treatment and five reference sites at three low-head dams in the headwater streams of the Qingyi watershed, China. Comparing with those in the reference sites, local habitat variables were significantly altered by low-head dams in the(More)
This paper introduces a number of new techniques that support systematic manipulation of predicates, operators, healthiness conditions, laws and fixpoints of recursive programs. Necessary restrictions are imposed on the definition of each model so that the inheritance relation can be established by checking a few conditions on the healthiness conditions and(More)
The consequences of climate change are becoming increasingly evident in the Tibetan Plateau, represented by glaciers retreating and lakes expanding, but the biological response to climate change by plateau-lake ecosystems is poorly known. In this study, we applied dendrochronology methods to develop a growth index chronology with otolith increment widths of(More)