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The signaling pathways mediated by Rho family GTPases have been implicated in many aspects of cell biology. The specificity of the pathways is achieved in part by the selective interaction between Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and their Rho GTPase substrates. Here, we report a first-generation small-molecule inhibitor of Rac GTPase(More)
Ripening of tomato fruits is triggered by the plant hormone ethylene, but its effect is restricted by an unknown developmental cue to mature fruits containing viable seeds. To determine whether this cue involves epigenetic remodeling, we expose tomatoes to the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine and find that they ripen prematurely. We performed(More)
How simple neuronal circuits control behavior is not well understood at the molecular or genetic level. In Caenorhabditis elegans, foraging behavior consists of long, forward movements interrupted by brief reversals. To determine how this pattern is generated and regulated, we have developed novel perturbation techniques that allow us to depolarize selected(More)
The outstanding electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of graphene make it attractive for applications in flexible electronics. However, efforts to make transparent conducting films from graphene have been hampered by the lack of efficient methods for the synthesis, transfer and doping of graphene at the scale and quality required for applications.(More)
Rho family small GTPases serve as molecular switches involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions including various cytoskeleton-related events and gene transcription. The Rho GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) are one of the major classes of regulators of Rho GTPases found in all eukaryotes that are crucial in cell cytoskeletal organization,(More)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, progressive, motor neuron degenerative disease, in which the role of inflammation is not well established. Innate and adaptive immunity were investigated in the CNS of the Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1)(G93A) transgenic mouse model of ALS. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrated SOD1(G93A) spinal cords during(More)
Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolutionary scenario for the origin of the 11 watermelon(More)
The C. elegans polymodal ASH sensory neurons detect mechanical, osmotic, and chemical stimuli and release glutamate to signal avoidance responses. To investigate the mechanisms of this polymodal signaling, we have characterized the role of postsynaptic glutamate receptors in mediating the response to these distinct stimuli. By studying the behavioral and(More)
Axons and dendrites differ in both microtubule organization and in the organelles and proteins they contain. Here we show that the microtubule motor dynein has a crucial role in polarized transport and in controlling the orientation of axonal microtubules in Drosophila melanogaster dendritic arborization (da) neurons. Changes in organelle distribution(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate most excitatory synaptic signalling between neurons. Binding of the neurotransmitter glutamate causes a conformational change in these receptors that gates open a transmembrane pore through which ions can pass. The gating of iGluRs is crucially dependent on a conserved amino acid that was first identified in(More)