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We present a new image editing method, particularly effective for sharpening major edges by increasing the steepness of transition while eliminating a manageable degree of low-amplitude structures. The seemingly contradictive effect is achieved in an optimization framework making use of L0 gradient minimization, which can globally control how many non-zero(More)
Neurogenesis has been described in limited regions of the adult mammalian brain. In this study, we showed that the ependymal layer of the 3rd ventricle is a neurogenic region in the adult rat brain. DiI labeling of the 3rd ventricle revealed that neural progenitor cells were derived from cells at the ependymal layer of the adult 3rd ventricle. The mitosis(More)
Most neurons in vertebrates make a developmental choice between two principal neurotransmitter phenotypes (glutamatergic versus GABAergic). Here we show that the homeobox gene Lbx1 determines a GABAergic cell fate in the dorsal spinal cord at early embryonic stages. In Lbx1-/- mice, the presumptive GABAergic neurons are transformed into glutamatergic cells.(More)
This paper reports the development of a quantitative target approximation (qTA) model for generating F(0) contours of speech. The qTA model simulates the production of tone and intonation as a process of syllable-synchronized sequential target approximation [Xu, Y. (2005). "Speech melody as articulatorily implemented communicative functions," Speech Commun.(More)
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of seed plants is the site at which lateral organs are formed. Once organ primordia initiate from the SAM, they establish polarity along the adaxial-abaxial, proximodistal and mediolateral axes. Among these three axes, the adaxial-abaxial polarity is of primary importance in leaf patterning. In leaf development, once the(More)
In this paper, we propose a preliminary framework for accounting for certain surface F0 variations in speech. The framework consists of de®nitions for pitch targets and rules of their implementation. Pitch targets are de®ned as the smallest operable units associated with linguistically functional pitch units, and they are comparable to segmental phones. The(More)
We propose a simple yet effective deblocking method for JPEG compressed image through postfiltering in shifted windows (PSW) of image blocks. The MSE is compared between the original image block and the image blocks in shifted windows, so as to decide whether these altered blocks are used in the smoothing procedure. Our research indicates that there exists(More)
We show that motion blur in successive video frames is invertible even if the point-spread function (PSF) due to motion smear in a single photo is non-invertible. Blurred photos exhibit nulls (zeros) in the frequency transform of the PSF, leading to an ill-posed deconvolution. Hardware solutions to avoid this require specialized devices such as the coded(More)
Itch is the least well understood of all the somatic senses, and the neural circuits that underlie this sensation are poorly defined. Here we show that the atonal-related transcription factor Bhlhb5 is transiently expressed in the dorsal horn of the developing spinal cord and appears to play a role in the formation and regulation of pruritic (itch)(More)