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In a previous investigation, we demonstrated that severe thymus and spleen atrophy occurs in mice upon dietary exposure to several potent peroxisome proliferators (PPs). In the present investigation, the effects of the potent PP perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the adaptive immunity of mice was evaluated both in vivo and ex vivo. The in vivo immune response(More)
Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is a continuous critical threat to the Internet. Derived from the low layers, new application-layer-based DDoS attacks utilizing legitimate HTTP requests to overwhelm victim resources are more undetectable. The case may be more serious when such attacks mimic or occur during the flash crowd event of a popular(More)
Candida albicans biofilms are structured microbial communities with high levels of drug resistance. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits hyphal formation in C. albicans, has been found to prevent biofilm formation by C. albicans. There is limited information, however, about the molecular mechanism of farnesol against biofilm formation. We used(More)
The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is a highly suspected candidate gene for cancer susceptibility. However, association studies on the XRCC3 polymorphisms (4541A>G, Thr(241)Met, 17893A>G) in cancer have shown conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to better assess the purported associations. Forty eight eligible(More)
PURPOSE Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and its receptor, c-Met, play important roles in tumor development and progression. In this study, we measured the serum HGF levels in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to evaluate its relationships with clinicopathologic features and the role of HGF in ESCC. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
LPS is a main causative agent of septic shock. There is a lack of effective therapies. In vitro studies have shown that uptake of apoptotic cells actively inhibits the secretion by activated macrophages (Mphi) of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and that such uptake increases the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-beta. We(More)
Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals, which includes drugs designed to improve the metabolic abnormalities linking hypertriglyceridemia to diabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin-resistance and atherosclerosis. We have recently demonstrated that exposure of rodents to potent PPs indirectly causes a number of(More)
Countering distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks is becoming ever more challenging with the vast resources and techniques increasingly available to attackers. DDoS attacks are typically carried out at the network layer. However, there is evidence to suggest that application layer DDoS attacks can be more effective than the traditional ones. In this(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a highly suspected candidate gene for RA susceptibility. However, association studies on the polymorphism of CTLA-4 exon-1 +49A/G in RA have shown conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to better assess the purported(More)