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In a previous investigation, we demonstrated that severe thymus and spleen atrophy occurs in mice upon dietary exposure to several potent peroxisome proliferators (PPs). In the present investigation, the effects of the potent PP perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the adaptive immunity of mice was evaluated both in vivo and ex vivo. The in vivo immune response(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a highly suspected candidate gene for RA susceptibility. However, association studies on the polymorphism of CTLA-4 exon-1 +49A/G in RA have shown conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to better assess the purported(More)
Since cloning of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) and its characterization as a multidrug resistance efflux transporter in 1998, BCRP has been the subject of more than two thousand scholarly articles. In normal tissues, BCRP functions as a defense mechanism against toxins and xenobiotics, with(More)
PURPOSE Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and its receptor, c-Met, play important roles in tumor development and progression. In this study, we measured the serum HGF levels in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to evaluate its relationships with clinicopathologic features and the role of HGF in ESCC. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is a highly suspected candidate gene for cancer susceptibility. However, association studies on the XRCC3 polymorphisms (4541A>G, Thr(241)Met, 17893A>G) in cancer have shown conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to better assess the purported associations. Forty eight eligible(More)
This report describes the use of an oligonucleotide macroarray to profile the expression of 375 genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 during heat, acid, and osmotic stress. A set of known stress-associated genes in IL1403 was used as the internal control on the array. Every stress response was accurately detected using the macroarray, compared to(More)
LPS is a main causative agent of septic shock. There is a lack of effective therapies. In vitro studies have shown that uptake of apoptotic cells actively inhibits the secretion by activated macrophages (Mphi) of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and that such uptake increases the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-beta. We(More)
Candida albicans biofilms are structured microbial communities with high levels of drug resistance. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits hyphal formation in C. albicans, has been found to prevent biofilm formation by C. albicans. There is limited information, however, about the molecular mechanism of farnesol against biofilm formation. We used(More)
A thermostable GDSL family esterase-encoding gene, EstL5, was directly obtained from the genomic DNA of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T2. Recombinant hexahistidine-tagged EstL5 was overexpressed, purified, and its biochemical properties were partially characterized. EstL5 was observed to be active within the temperature range of 0-80°C, having maximal(More)
Many methods designed to create defenses against distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are focused on the IP and TCP layers instead of the high layer. They are not suitable for handling the new type of attack which is based on the application layer. In this paper, we introduce a new scheme to achieve early attack detection and filtering for the(More)