Yi Xiao

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Nucleic acid-based aptamers offer many potential advantages relative to antibodies and other protein-based affinity reagents, including facile chemical synthesis, reversible folding, improved thermal stability and lower cost. However, their selection requires significant time and resources and selections often fail to yield molecules with affinities(More)
The ability to obtain sequence-specific genetic information about rare target organisms directly from complex biological samples at the point-of-care would transform many areas of biotechnology. Microfluidics technology offers compelling tools for integrating multiple biochemical processes in a single device, but despite significant progress, only limited(More)
The development of a biosensor system capable of continuous, real-time measurement of small-molecule analytes directly in complex, unprocessed aqueous samples has been a significant challenge, and successful implementation has been achieved for only a limited number of targets. Toward a general solution to this problem, we report here the Microfluidic(More)
Multivalent molecular interactions can be exploited to dramatically enhance the performance of an affinity reagent. The enhancement in affinity and specificity achieved with a multivalent construct depends critically on the effectiveness of the scaffold that joins the ligands, as this determines their positions and orientations with respect to the target(More)
The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway plays crucial roles in regulating both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of TSC1, a critical negative regulator of mTOR, in peripheral T cell homeostasis remains elusive. With T cell-specific Tsc1 conditional knockout (Tsc1 KO) mice, we found that peripheral naïve CD8(+) T cells but not CD4(+) T cells were severely(More)
The generation of nucleic acid aptamers with high affinity typically entails a time-consuming, iterative process of binding, separation, and amplification. It would therefore be beneficial to develop an efficient selection strategy that can generate these high-quality aptamers rapidly, economically, and reproducibly. Toward this goal, we have developed a(More)
We describe an innovative selection approach to generate self-reporting aptamers (SRAs) capable of converting target-binding events into fluorescence readout without requiring additional modification, optimization, or the use of DNA helper strands. These aptamers contain a DNAzyme moiety that is initially maintained in an inactive conformation. Upon binding(More)
Singled out for its singularity: In a single-step, single-component, fluorescence-based method for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at room temperature, the sensor is comprised of a single, self-complementary DNA strand that forms a triple-stem structure. The large conformational change that occurs upon binding to perfectly matched (PM)(More)
b S Supporting Information M ultivalent binding interactions form the foundation of many important biological functions found in nature. For example, ethanol binds to the allosteric site of GABA A and glycine receptors 1 to up-regulate activity, while influenza viruses exploit multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions to enter host cells. 2 Multivalent(More)
Correct specification of the left-right (L-R) axis is important for organ morphogenesis. Conserved mechanisms involving cilia rotation inside node-like structures and asymmetric Nodal signaling in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), which are important symmetry-breaking events, have been intensively studied. In zebrafish, the clustering and migration of(More)