This paper reviews wireless LAN security with a focus on the evolving new standard of IEEE 802.11i. The major security enhancements in encryption and authentication defining by the IEEE 802.11i are illustrated. In addition, the newly introduced key management in IEEE 802.11i is also discussed. Because IEEE 802.11i incorporates IEEE 802.1X as its… (More)
In the interest of establishing robust benchmarks for search efficiency, we conducted a series of tests on symbolic databases of musical incipits and themes taken from several diverse repertories. The results we report differ from existing studies in four respects: (1) the data quantity is much larger (c. 100,000 entries); (2) the levels of melodic and… (More)
Writing on dirty paper, a mathematical model for watermarking, is examined and extended to allow simultaneous watermarking at multiple rates. Based on the extended model, it is argued that the optimal watermarking strategy is to share the power. The argument is further supported by simulations of joint spread spectrum and quantization watermarking.
This paper proposes to watermark parametric representations for synthetic audio. Our watermark system combines quantization index modulation at the encoder and maximum likelihood parameter estimation at the decoder. To guarantee error-free data hiding under expected types of attacks, knowledge of Fisher information and Cramér-Rao bounds is applied to the… (More)
We present an enhanced sinusoidal modeling system that efficiently parameterizes spectral peaks by linear frequency chirp rate, in addition to the standard parameters of amplitude , center frequency, and phase. Similar to a conventional sinusoidal modeling systems, the current system operates in a frame-by-frame manner, but also efficiently obtains a chirp… (More)
A wideband (WB) aural acoustical test battery of middle-ear status, including acoustic-reflex thresholds (ARTs) and acoustic-transfer functions (ATFs, i.e., absorbance and admittance) was hypothesized to be more accurate than 1-kHz tympanometry in classifying ears that pass or refer on a newborn hearing screening (NHS) protocol based on otoacoustic… (More)
Some phytochemicals with the characteristics of cytotoxicity and/or antimetastasis have generated intense interest among the anticancer studies. In this study, a natural flavonoid baicalein was evaluated in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Baicalein inhibits 5637 cell proliferation. It arrests cells in G1 phase at 100 μ M and in S phase below 75 μ M.… (More)
A novel and effective treatment is urgently needed to deal with the current treatment dilemma in incurable differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). Reversine, a small synthetic purine analogue (2,6-disubstituted purine), has been shown to be effective in tumor suppression. We… (More)