This paper reviews wireless LAN security with a focus on the evolving new standard of IEEE 802.11i. The major security enhancements in encryption and authentication defining by the IEEE 802.11i are illustrated. In addition, the newly introduced key management in IEEE 802.11i is also discussed. Because IEEE 802.11i incorporates IEEE 802.1X as its… (More)
In the interest of establishing robust benchmarks for search efficiency, we conducted a series of tests on symbolic databases of musical incipits and themes taken from several diverse repertories. The results we report differ from existing studies in four respects: (1) the data quantity is much larger (c. 100,000 entries); (2) the levels of melodic and… (More)
We present an enhanced sinusoidal modeling system that efficiently parameterizes spectral peaks by linear frequency chirp rate, in addition to the standard parameters of amplitude , center frequency, and phase. Similar to a conventional sinusoidal modeling systems, the current system operates in a frame-by-frame manner, but also efficiently obtains a chirp… (More)
The focus of this paper is to hide information in sinusoidal audio representations. Watermarks are embedded by introducing quantization index modulation (QIM) in frequencies of sinusoids. The frequency shifts due to QIM are controlled to be less than one-thirtieth Bark, which requires high accuracy in frequency estimation for watermark decoding. Therefore,… (More)
Writing on dirty paper, a mathematical model for watermarking, is examined and extended to allow simultaneous watermarking at multiple rates. Based on the extended model, it is argued that the optimal watermarking strategy is to share the power. The argument is further supported by simulations of joint spread spectrum and quantization watermarking.
This paper proposes to watermark parametric representations for synthetic audio. Our watermark system combines quantization index modulation at the encoder and maximum likelihood parameter estimation at the decoder. To guarantee error-free data hiding under expected types of attacks, knowledge of Fisher information and Cramér-Rao bounds is applied to the… (More)
Abnormal expression of Aurora-A and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is observed in different kinds of cancer and associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, the relationship between Aurora-A and EGFR in tumour development was not clear. In previous reports, we found that EGFR translocates to nucleus to activate Aurora-A expression… (More)