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In spite of intensified efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways and no evidence to demonstrate that endosomal signaling is able to produce a biological outcome. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the lack of means to(More)
The Sir2 family of enzymes or sirtuins are known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription, genome stability, metabolism and lifespan. However, four of the seven mammalian sirtuins have very weak deacetylase activity in vitro. Here we show that human SIRT6 efficiently(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta/BMP superfamily, and we have demonstrated that it is one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, we sought to investigate if canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling plays an important role in BMP-9-induced(More)
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Here, we investigated a possible role of defective osteoblast differentiation in OS tumorigenesis. We found that basal levels of the early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were low in OS lines. Osteogenic regulators Runx2 and OSX, and the late marker osteopontin (OPN)(More)
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in children and young adults. There is a paucity of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that have not been further transformed by exogenous means. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from a poorly metastatic(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors and can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in stem cell proliferation and differentiation. We recently demonstrated that BMP9 is a potent but less understood osteogenic factor. We previously found that(More)
Thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists lacking sequence homology to TPO were designed by grafting a known peptide sequence into the hinge and/or kappa constant regions of a human anti-anthrax antibody. Some of these proteins were equipotent to TPO in stimulating cMpl-r activity in vitro and in increasing platelet levels in vivo. ALXN4100TPO (4100TPO), the(More)
The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the autism spectrum rating scale (ASRS). We recruited 1,625 community-based children and 211 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases from 4 sites, and the parents of all participants completed the Chinese version of the ASRS. A robust weighted least squares means and(More)
To explore the effects of the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network between TP53INP1 and E-cadherin on the invasion and migration of glioma. TP53INP1 and E-cadherin mRNA and protein were significantly overexpressed in normal brain tissues compared with glioma tissue specimens and correlated with the grades of glioma negatively. The expression of(More)
WNT and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling are known to stimulate hemogenesis from pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, osteochondrogenic mesoderm was generated effectively when BMP signaling is kept to a low level, while WNT signaling was strongly activated. When mesoderm specification from ES cells was exogenous factor dependent, WNT3a(More)