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The nature of information stemming from a single neuron and conveyed simultaneously to several hundred target neurons is not known. Triple and quadruple neuron recordings revealed that each synaptic connection established by neocortical pyramidal neurons is potentially unique. Specifically, synaptic connections onto the same morphological class differed in(More)
A puzzling feature of the neocortex is the rich array of inhibitory interneurons. Multiple neuron recordings revealed numerous electrophysiological-anatomical subclasses of neocortical gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) interneurons and three types of GABAergic synapses. The type of synapse used by each interneuron to influence its neighbors follows(More)
The onset latencies of single-unit responses evoked by flashing visual stimuli were measured in the parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) and in cortical visual areas V1, V2, V3, V4, middle temporal area (MT), medial superior temporal area (MST), and in the frontal eye field (FEF) in individual(More)
We describe the cloning of p63, a gene at chromosome 3q27-29 that bears strong homology to the tumor suppressor p53 and to the related gene, p73. p63 was detected in a variety of human and mouse tissues, including proliferating basal cells of epithelial layers in the epidermis, cervix, urothelium, and prostate. Unlike p53, the p63 gene encodes multiple(More)
Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human(More)
BACKGROUND In early breast cancer, variations in local treatment that substantially affect the risk of locoregional recurrence could also affect long-term breast cancer mortality. To examine this relationship, collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken, based on individual patient data, of the relevant randomised trials that began by 1995. METHODS(More)
As a first step in a program to use genetically altered mice in the study of memory mechanisms, mutant mice were produced that do not express the alpha-calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (alpha-CaMKII). The alpha-CaMKII is highly enriched in postsynaptic densities of hippocampus and neocortex and may be involved in the regulation of long-term(More)
Human visual function declines with age. Much of this decline is probably mediated by changes in the central visual pathways. We compared the stimulus selectivity of cells in primary visual cortex (striate cortex or V1) in young adult and very old macaque monkeys using single-neuron in vivo electrophysiology. Our results provide evidence for a significant(More)
There is a need for methodology to predict clinically significant drug-drug interactions so that clinical studies can be directed toward interactions which are likely to be clinically relevant. To this end, we evaluated selective assays for the seven drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) isozymes 1A2 (caffeine N3-demethylation), 2A6 (coumarin(More)
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is essential for many enzymatic reactions, in which it serves to maintain prosthetic metal ions in their reduced forms (for example, Fe2+, Cu+), and for scavenging free radicals in order to protect tissues from oxidative damage. The facilitative sugar transporters of the GLUT type can transport the oxidized form of the vitamin,(More)