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The antidepressant-like, antianxiety-like and sedative effects of tryptophan (TRP), in the absence and presence of p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), and melatonin were studied in mice using the forced-swimming test, open-field test and activity cage, respectively. Single-dose TRP caused an antidepressant-like effect dose dependently up to 125 mg/kg. No(More)
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common subtype of dementia. As the prevalence of dementia is projected to increase, the burden of the disease on society is expected to become increasingly significant. The link between eye pathology and neurodegenerative diseases has been established in multiple studies. In particular, optic nerve parameters associated(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Microvascular disease has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. The retina provides a window to assess microcirculation noninvasively. We studied the association between quantitatively measured retinal microvascular characteristics and acute ischemic stroke. METHODS We conducted a case-control study with acute ischemic(More)
Neurodegeneration in dementia is mainly evaluated by assessing cerebral atrophy, while retinal neurodegeneration can be quantified in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We examined the association of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thinning with global and regional cerebral atrophy on magnetic(More)
Novel retinal imaging techniques have enabled the assessment of quantitative vascular parameters, which provide information on the microvasculature before the appearance of retinopathy signs. Advances in neuroimaging have revealed that cerebral microbleeds (CMB) - besides lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions (WML) - may be a novel marker of cerebral(More)
Although assessment of hypertensive retinopathy signs has been recommended for determining end-organ damage and stratifying vascular risk in persons with hypertension, its value remains unclear. In this study, we examine whether hypertensive retinopathy predicts the long-term risk of stroke in those with hypertension. A total of 2907 participants with(More)
Although cerebral small vessel disease has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cerebral microcirculation is difficult to visualize directly in vivo. As the retina and the brain share similar embryological origin, anatomical features and physiological properties with the cerebral small vessels, the retinal vessels thus offer a(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60(More)
Both healthy and pathological aging due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with decreased brain grey matter volume (GMV) and disrupted white matter (WM) microstructure. Thinner macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography has been reported in patients with AD and mild cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND With increasing interest in determining if measurement of retinal neuronal structure with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is useful in accessing neurodegenerative process in cognitive decline and development of dementia, it is important to evaluate whether the SD-OCT measurements are repeatable and reproducible in these(More)