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Scalar implicature has served as a test case for exploring the relations between semantic and pragmatic processes during language comprehension. Most studies have used reaction time methods and the results have been variable. In these studies, we use the visual-world paradigm to investigate implicature. We recorded participants' eye movements during(More)
Recent research on children's inferencing has found that while adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of some (implying not all), five-to nine-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly all). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of prior tasks? In(More)
Recent research on children's inferencing has found that although adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of some (implying not all), 5- to 9-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly all). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of prior tasks? In 3(More)
Three experiments document that conceptual knowledge influences lexical acquisition in infancy. A novel target object was initially labeled with a novel word. In both yes-no (Experiment 1) and forced-choice (Experiment 2) tasks, 2-year-olds' subsequent extensions were mediated by the conceptual description of the targets. When targets were described as(More)
Dispositional traits and life narratives represent two different levels of personality that have not previously been empirically linked. The current study tested five hypotheses connecting Big-Five traits to life-narrative indices of emotional tone, theme, and structure. Students (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a self-report measure of the Big-Five(More)
How does prior context influence lexical and discourse-level processing during real-time language comprehension? Experiment 1 examined whether the referential ambiguity introduced by a repeated, anaphoric expression had an immediate or delayed effect on lexical and discourse processing, using an eye-tracking-while-reading task. Eye movements indicated(More)
During language acquisition, children exploit syntactic cues within sentences to learn the meanings of words. Yet, it remains unknown how this strategy develops alongside an ability to access cues during real-time language comprehension. This study investigates how on-line sensitivity to syntactic cues impacts off-line interpretation and recall of word(More)
Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome that predicts disability and mortality. Substantial evidence suggests that inflammation marked by elevated IL-6 levels and total white blood cell (WBC) counts contribute to this syndrome. However, the relationships of WBC subpopulations, the important inflammatory and immune cells, with frailty have not been(More)
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1. A Puzzle on the Interpretation of Scalar Quantifiers and Numerals Numeral determiners (such as two, three etc.) and scalar quantifiers (such as some) are known to have different interpretations. Under one interpretation, two and some have an upper bounded 1 or strong meaning, where two means 'two and not more' (or 'exactly two') and some means 'some but(More)