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Retinoic acid (RA) promotes growth and differentiation in many developing tissues but less is known about its influence on CNS regeneration. We investigated the possible involvement of RA in rat spinal cord injury (SCI) using the New York University (NYU) impactor to induce mild or moderate spinal cord contusion injury. Changes in RA at the lesion site were(More)
OBJECTIVE Repair of demyelinated axons in diseases such as multiple sclerosis requires activation of the myelination program in existing or newly recruited oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The control of OPC differentiation and initiation of myelination during repair is poorly understood. In this study, we test the ability of anti-LINGO-1 reagents to(More)
Reliable animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are essential to test novel hypotheses and therapeutic interventions. In this study, based on advantages of both the closed head injury (CHI) and controlled cortical impact (CCI) models, we developed a bilateral head injury model in mice. C57BL/6 mice were used in this study. A midline craniotomy (5mm(More)
Reactive gliosis, also known as glial scar formation, is an inflammatory response characterized by the proliferation of microglia and astrocytes as well as astrocytic hypertrophy following injury in the central nervous system (CNS). The glial scar forms a physical and molecular barrier to isolate the injured area from adjacent normal nervous tissue for(More)
Demyelination and axonal loss have been described as the histological hallmarks of inflammatory lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are the pathological correlates of persistent disability. However, the immune mechanisms underlying axonal damage in MS remain unknown. Here, we report the use of single chain-variable domain fragments (scFv) from clonally(More)
Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent adult-onset movement disorder showing evidence of non-random accumulation in some families. ET has previously been mapped to genetic loci on chromosomes 2p and 3q, but no causative genes identified. We conducted genomewide linkage screening with subsequent fine mapping in seven large North American families(More)
Premature babies are at high risk for both infantile apnoea and long-term neurobehavioural deficits. Recent studies suggest that diffuse structural changes in brain white matter are a positive predictor of poor cognitive outcomes. Since oligodendrocyte maturation, myelination, axon development, and synapse formation mainly occur in the third trimester of(More)
Demyelination contributes to the dysfunction after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective(More)
This study investigated whether neuronal inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), a regulator of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, can activate the intrinsic neuritogenetic mode of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in adult mice following spinal cord injury (SCI). First, the Id2 developmental expression profile of DRG neurons, along with the(More)