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Passive tension in striated muscles derives primarily from the extension of the giant protein titin. However, several studies have suggested that, in cardiac muscle, interactions between titin and actin might also contribute to passive tension. We expressed recombinant fragments representing the subdomains of the extensible region of cardiac N2B titin(More)
Developmental changes in contractile behavior are known to occur during fetal and postnatal heart development. In this study, we examined whether adaptations take place in titin. A range of species was used to evaluate titin isoform expression and altered function during cardiac muscle development. A novel titin exon microarray that allows all 363 titin(More)
Titin (also known as connectin) is a giant protein with a wide range of cellular functions, including providing muscle cells with elasticity. Its physiological extension is largely derived from the PEVK segment, rich in proline (P), glutamate (E), valine (V), and lysine (K) residues. We studied recombinant PEVK molecules containing the two conserved(More)
Small (N2B) and large (N2BA) cardiac titin isoforms are differentially expressed in a species-specific and heart location-specific manner. To understand how differential expression of titin isoforms may influence passive stiffness of cardiac muscle we investigated the mechanical properties of mouse left ventricular (MLV) wall muscle (expressing(More)
Extension of the I-band segment of titin gives rise to part of the diastolic force of cardiac muscle. Previous studies of human cardiac titin transcripts suggested a series of differential splicing events in the I-band segment of titin leading to the so-called N2A and N2B isoform transcripts. Here we investigated titin expression at the protein level in a(More)
Titin is a giant protein that is in charge of the assembly and passive mechanical properties of the sarcomere. Cardiac titin contains a unique N2B region, which has been proposed to modulate elasticity of the titin filament and to be important for hypertrophy signaling and the ischemic stress response through its binding proteins FHL2 and alphaB-crystallin,(More)
We investigated the effect of protein kinase A (PKA) on passive force in skinned cardiac tissues that express different isoforms of titin, i.e., stiff (N2B) and more compliant (N2BA) titins, at different levels. We used rat ventricular (RV), bovine left ventricular (BLV), and bovine left atrial (BLA) muscles (passive force: RV > BLV > BLA, with the ratio of(More)
The hibernation phenomenon captures biological as well as clinical interests to understand how organs adapt. Here we studied how hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extremely low heart rates without developing cardiac chamber dilation. We evaluated cardiac filling function in unanesthetized grizzly bears by echocardiography during(More)