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Antiretroviral therapy can reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia to below the detection limit of ultrasensitive clinical assays (50 copies of HIV-1 RNA/ml). However, latent HIV-1 persists in resting CD4+ T cells, and low residual levels of free virus are found in the plasma. Limited characterization of this residual viremia has been(More)
Alteration in the intracellular signal transduction pathway in primary afferent neurons may contribute to pain hypersensitivity. We demonstrated that very rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (pERK) occurred in DRG neurons that were taking part in the transmission of various noxious signals. The electrical stimulation of(More)
In response to genotoxic stress, a transient arrest in cell-cycle progression enforced by the DNA-damage checkpoint (DDC) signalling pathway positively contributes to genome maintenance. Because hyperactivated DDC signalling can lead to a persistent and detrimental cell-cycle arrest, cells must tightly regulate the activity of the kinases involved in this(More)
Genome maintenance and cancer suppression require homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. In yeast and mammals, the scaffold protein TOPBP1Dpb11 has been implicated in HR, although its precise function and mechanism of action remain elusive. In this study, we show that yeast Dpb11 plays an antagonistic role in recombination control through regulated(More)
The multisubunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, among which the subunit b (eIF3b) is a major scaffold protein, plays essential roles in protein synthesis. Here, we report the crystal structure of the WD40 domain of Chaetomium thermophilum eIF3b, revealing a nine-bladed β-propeller fold. Sequence analysis indicates that this propeller(More)
Beginning during the second half of gestation, increasing numbers of cardiac myocytes withdraw from the cell cycle such that DNA synthesis is no longer detectable in these cells by neonatal day 17 in vivo. The mechanisms that exclude these and other terminally differentiated cells from the cell division cycle are poorly understood. To begin to explore the(More)
UNLABELLED Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, has the potential to immortalize primary B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro. During immortalization, several EBV products induce cytokines or chemokines, and most of these are required for the proliferation of LCLs. Interleukin-32 (IL-32), a recently discovered(More)
The initiation of cancer metastasis usually requires Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), by which tumor cells lose cell-cell interactions and gain the ability of migration and invasion. Previous study demonstrated that p68 RNA helicase, a prototypical member of the DEAD-box RNA helicases, functions as a mediator to promote platelet-derived growth(More)
The effects of retinoic acid (RA) are mainly mediated by its nuclear receptors, the RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) that regulate target gene expression by binding to specific RA-response ele meats (RAREs). RAR@Jis the best CharacteriZed RA-responsive gene. Due to the presence ofa RARE (fiRARE) in its promoter, the expression of the(More)
To investigate the effect of hyaluronan oligosaccharides (o-HA) on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and the possible mechanism involved. The cell proliferation was determined by cell counting and flow cytometer, and the phosphorylation of Src kinase and ERK-1/2 as well as the expression of cyclin D1 were assayed by western blot. o-HA at concentration of(More)