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Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases caused by infection of four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN). We found that activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) triggered by viral infection and by foreign DNA and RNA stimulation was blocked by DEN-encoded NS2B3 through a protease-dependent mechanism. The key adaptor protein in type I(More)
We investigated the possibility of producing the therapeutic recombinant cytokine, Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), in transgenic rice cell (Oryza sativa, cultivar TNG67) suspension cultures. We tested expression of two vector constructs, each harboring an αAmy3 leader peptide and a C-terminus His 6 tag fused to a human IFN-γ cDNA, one driven by a(More)
A novel 5-membered iminocyclitol derivative was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of the glycoprotein-processing alpha-glucosidase with a Ki value of 53 nM. This compound was further derivatized to antiviral agents against Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2), human SARS coronavirus, and human beta-hexosaminidase (Ki = 2.6(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes acute encephalitis with high mortality in humans. To understand the virus-host interactions that influence JEV virulence, we determined the lethality of a neurovirulent (RP-9) and an attenuated (RP-2ms) variant of JEV in several immunodeficient mice strains. The attenuated(More)
The increasing prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) infection presents serious disease and economic burdens in countries where dengue epidemics are occurring. Despite the clinical importance, no DENV vaccine or anti-DENV drug is available. In this study, we found that prochlorperazine (PCZ), a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist approved to treat nausea,(More)
Alpha-galactosyl ceramide (α-GalCer) has been known to bind to the CD1d receptor on dendritic cells and activate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which subsequently secrete T-helper-cell 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines, which correlate with anti-infection activity and the prevention of autoimmune diseases, respectively. α-GalCer elicits the secretion of(More)
Mitochondria are highly dynamic subcellular organelles participating in many signaling pathways such as antiviral innate immunity and cell death cascades. Here we found that mitochondrial fusion was impaired in dengue virus (DENV) infected cells. Two mitofusins (MFN1 and MFN2), which mediate mitochondrial fusion and participate in the proper function of(More)
Infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cause acute encephalitis in humans. β-oxidation breaks down fatty acids for ATP production in mitochondria, and impaired β-oxidation can induce pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. To address the role of fatty-acid β-oxidation in JEV infection, we(More)
UNLABELLED Nanomaterials have the characteristics associated with high surface-to-volume ratios and have been explored for their antiviral activity. Despite some success, cytotoxicity has been an issue in nanomaterial-based antiviral strategies. We previously developed a novel method to fully exfoliate montmorillonite clay to generate the most fundamental(More)
Despite the availability of vaccines for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the re-emerging virus remains a clinically important pathogen that causes acute encephalitis and permanent neuropsychiatric sequels. JEV highly targets dopaminergic neuron-rich brain regions including the thalamus and midbrain. The molecular mechanism contributing to the high(More)