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The complete natamycin (NTM) biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chattanoogensis was cloned and confirmed by the disruption of pathway-specific activator genes. Comparative cluster analysis with its counterpart in Streptomyces natalensis revealed different cluster architecture between these two clusters. Compared with the highly conserved coding(More)
A novel Streptomyces strain, L10, which is capable of producing natamycin, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Zhejiang province, China. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene and 16S rDNA sequences, as well as phenotypic comparison, strain L10 (CGMCC 2644) is proposed to be a previously uncharacterized strain of S. chattanoogensis.(More)
Gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) produced by several Streptomyces species have been shown to serve as quorum-sensing signaling molecules for activating antibiotic production. The GBL system of Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10, a producer of antifungal agent natamycin, consists of three genes: scgA, scgX, and scgR. Both scgA and scgX contribute to GBL production,(More)
Streptomyces is a group of soil bacteria of medicinal, economic, ecological, and industrial importance. It is renowned for its complex biology in gene regulation, antibiotic production, morphological differentiation, and stress response. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in Streptomyces biology inspired by -omics based high(More)
Cladoniamides are indolotryptoline natural products that derive from indolocarbazole precursors. Here, we present a microbial platform to artificially redirect the cladoniamide pathway to generate unnatural bisindoles for drug discovery. Specifically, we target glycosyltransferase, halogenase, and oxidoreductase genes from the phylogenetically related(More)
Bisindole cladoniamides, nanomolar inhibitors of colon cancer cell line HCT-116, contain a rare, indolotryptoline substructure. In this report, the structures of xenocladoniamides A-E (9-13) are described. Compounds 9-13 are generated from a cladoniamide heterologous production system where O-methyltransferase gene claM3 has been inactivated. The results(More)
Bacterial bisindole alkaloids that derive from the oxidative dimerization of l-tryptophan possess diversified biological activities and unique molecular structures. In recent years, the number of bisindoles and their gene clusters has greatly expanded, revealing a large genetic toolbox for the generation of unique structural modifications. In this review,(More)
The precursor of a secretory protein usually contains an N-terminal signal peptide (SP), which directs the protein to cross the membrane. We performed a genome-wide analysis of secretory proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and found that signal peptides evolved faster than mature proteins. To determine whether the evolutionary pattern could be explained(More)
Padanamides are linear tetrapeptides notable for the absence of proteinogenic amino acids in their structures. In particular, two unusual heterocycles, (S)-3-amino-2-oxopyrrolidine-1-carboxamide (S-Aopc) and (S)-3-aminopiperidine-2,6-dione (S-Apd), are found at the C-termini of padanamides A and B, respectively. Here we identify the padanamide biosynthetic(More)
The bacterial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor indolmycin features a unique oxazolinone heterocycle whose biogenetic origins have remained obscure for over 50 years. Here we identify and characterize the indolmycin biosynthetic pathway, using systematic in vivo gene inactivation, in vitro biochemical assays, and total enzymatic synthesis. Our work(More)