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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nucleotide noncoding RNAs produced by Dicer-catalyzed excision from stem-loop precursors. Many plant miRNAs play critical roles in development, nutrient homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and pathogen responses via interactions with specific target mRNAs. miRNAs are not the only Dicer-derived small RNAs produced(More)
Argonaute (AGO) proteins recruit small RNAs to form the core of RNAi effector complexes. Arabidopsis encodes ten AGO proteins and a large network of small RNAs. How these small RNAs are sorted into specific AGO complexes remains largely unknown. We have cataloged small RNAs resident in four AGO complexes. We found that AGO2 and AGO4 preferentially recruit(More)
DNA methylation has important functions in stable, transcriptional gene silencing, immobilization of transposable elements and genome organization. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation can be induced by double-stranded RNA through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, a response known as RNA-directed DNA methylation. This requires a specialized set of RNAi(More)
quired for the accumulation of w21 nt miRNAs and transacting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) (Park et al., 2002; Per-is involved in the accumulation of w24 nt siRNAs impli-1 Bungtown Road Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724 cated in DNA and histone methylation (Xie et al., 2004). Animals and plants also contain multiple Argonaute proteins that seem to have specialized(More)
Maize (Zea mays) has an exceptionally complex genome with a rich history in both epigenetics and evolution. We report genomic landscapes of representative epigenetic modifications and their relationships to mRNA and small RNA (smRNA) transcriptomes in maize shoots and roots. The epigenetic patterns differed dramatically between genes and transposable(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger plant defenses when perceived by surface-localized immune receptors. PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) plays a vital role in the resistance of plants to numerous potential pathogens. MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is known to be important for PTI, but miRNA species involved in this process have not been fully(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small silencing RNAs with regulatory roles in gene expression. miRNAs interact with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to form effector complexes that cleave target mRNAs or repress translation. Rice (Oryza sativa) encodes four AGO1 homologs (AGO1a, AGO1b, AGO1c, and AGO1d). We used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the four AGO1s. The RNAi(More)
Viroids are small noncoding and infectious RNAs that replicate autonomously and move systemically throughout an infected plant. The RNAs of the family Pospiviroidae contain a central conserved region (CCR) that has long been thought to be involved in replication. Here, we report that the CCR of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) also plays a role in(More)
Eukaryotes have evolved complex mechanisms to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through coordinated actions of protein sensors, transducers, and effectors. Here we show that ∼21-nucleotide small RNAs are produced from the sequences in the vicinity of DSB sites in Arabidopsis and in human cells. We refer to these as diRNAs for DSB-induced small RNAs. In(More)
RNA-templated RNA replication is essential for viral or viroid infection, as well as for regulation of cellular gene expression. Specific RNA motifs likely regulate various aspects of this replication. Viroids of the Pospiviroidae family, as represented by the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), replicate in the nucleus by utilizing DNA-dependent RNA(More)