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We recently developed a mouse model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence, in which a single i.v. hydrodynamic injection of HBV DNA to C57BL/6 mice allows HBV replication and induces a partial immune response, so that about 20-30% of the mice carry HBV for more than 6 months. The model was used to identify the viral antigen crucial for HBV persistence. We(More)
Persistent hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection results in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies in animal models of viral infection indicate that the interaction between the inhibitory receptor, programmed death (PD)-1, on lymphocytes and its ligand (PD-L1) play a critical role in T-cell exhaustion by inducing(More)
We have recently shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (HBcAg) is the major viral factor for HBV clearance using a hydrodynamics-based mouse model. Knockout of HBcAg hampers the development of antiviral immune responses and thus promotes HBV persistence. Here, we further demonstrated that only in the capsid form, but not the free or dimer form,(More)
Lactoferrin is a metal-binding glycoprotein exhibiting multifunctional immunoregulation of antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-endotoxin and antiviral activities. Uptake of porcine lactoferrin (PLF) has been shown to enhance resistance to diarrhea and anemia in neonatal piglets. In this study, the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, was used to express a(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the expressions and ratios of type 1 T helper cell (Th1) cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), as well as type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients. METHODS The human(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Reference intervals of biochemical tests for screening for diabetes mellitus and liver and renal function among school children in Central Taiwan have never been documented. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the reference intervals for the above mentioned biochemical tests for pediatric populations. METHODS A total of 4326(More)
Fluidized zero valent iron (ZVI) process was adopted to reduce ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) from low pH printed-circuit board (PCB) wastewater for two reasons: (1) low pH of the wastewater favoring the ZVI reaction; (2) higher ZVI utilization for fluidized process due to abrasive motion of the ZVI. The results showed that the degradation of EDTA(More)
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