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BACKGROUND Recent studies revealed a critical role for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from epithelial cells and OX40 ligand (OX40L) expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) in T(H)2 priming and polarization. OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the importance of the TSLP-OX40L axis in neonatal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND An important aspect of the innate immune response to pathogens is the production of anti-microbial peptides such as cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), the murine homologue of human cathelicidin LL-37. In this study, mechanisms regulating LPS-induction of CRAMP gene expression in mast cells were investigated. NF-kappaB and MAPK(More)
Histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R)-deficient mice (H(4)R(-/-)), H(4)R antagonist-treated wild-type (WT) mice, and WT mice depleted of basophils failed to develop early (EPR) or late phase (LPR) nasal responses following allergen sensitization and challenge. Basophil transfer from WT but not H(4)R(-/-) mice restored the EPR and LPR in H(4)R(-/-) mice. Following(More)
Recent work has established important roles for basophils in regulating immune responses. To exert their biological functions, basophils need to be expanded to critical numbers. However, the mechanisms underlying basophil expansion remain unclear. In this study, we established that IL-3 played an important role in the rapid and specific expansion of(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs), produced in response to stress, are suppressive in disease models. We previously showed that Mycobacterium leprae HSP65 prevented development of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice. Our goal in this study was to define the mechanism responsible for the suppressive effects of HSP. In one in vivo approach, BALB/c(More)
BACKGROUND Eosinophils accumulate at the site of allergic inflammation and are critical effector cells in allergic diseases. Recent studies have also suggested a role for eosinophils in the resolution of inflammation. OBJECTIVE To determine the role of eosinophils in the resolution phase of the response to repeated allergen challenge. METHODS(More)
G1-phase cell cycle defects, such as alterations in cyclin D1 or cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) levels, are seen in most tumors. For example, increased cyclin D1 and decreased cdk6 levels are seen in many human breast tumors. Overexpression of cdk6 in breast tumor cells in culture has been shown to suppress proliferation, unlike the growth stimulating(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease that is associated with a large influx of inflammatory cells. Several chemokines and chemokine receptors play critical roles in the development of allergic airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE Because polarized human T(H)2 cells express a functional CXCR3 chemokine receptor, we evaluated the effects of(More)
Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR)-mediated activation of JNK was shown to regulate the suppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) naturally occurring T regulatory cells (nTregs) in wild-type (WT) hosts. In this study, CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells were shown to be capable of becoming pathogenic effector cells in sensitized and challenged CD8(-/-)(More)
RATIONALE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants may be followed by the development of asthma-like symptoms. Age at first infection dictates consequences upon reinfection. Reinfection of mice initially exposed as neonates to RSV enhanced development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic inflammation, and mucus(More)