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A C. elegans neurosecretory signaling system regulates whether animals enter the reproductive life cycle or arrest development at the long-lived dauer diapause stage. daf-2, a key gene in the genetic pathway that mediates this endocrine signaling, encodes an insulin receptor family member. Decreases in DAF-2 signaling induce metabolic and developmental(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the molecular target for catatoxic steroids such as pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), which induce cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expression and protect the body from harmful chemicals. In this study, we demonstrate that PXR is activated by the toxic bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) and its 3-keto metabolite. Furthermore,(More)
Hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death, is frequently associated with plant disease resistance. It has been proposed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate HR cell death based on pharmacological studies by using kinase inhibitors. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that NtMEK2, a MAPK(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the neural correlates of Chinese character and word reading. The Chinese stimuli were presented visually, one at a time. Subjects covertly generated a word that was semantically related to each stimulus. Three sorts of Chinese items were used: single characters having precise meanings, single(More)
The cpr5 mutant was identified from a screen for constitutive expression of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). This single recessive mutation also leads to spontaneous expression of chlorotic lesions and reduced trichome development. The cpr5 plants were found to be constitutively resistant to two virulent pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola(More)
A novel sequence discovered in a computational screen appears distantly related to the p35 subunit of IL-12. This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23. Activated dendritic cells secrete detectable(More)
Identification and characterization of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) as a key regulator of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) gene expression has led to an increased understanding of the molecular basis of many drug-drug interactions. Mice lacking PXR (PXR-KO) were used in the present study to delineate the role of PXR in regulating hepatomegaly and regulating the(More)
Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) form a pair bond with a female partner after mating, and this behavior is regulated by the neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP). The authors report that AVP in the lateral septum is important for pair bond formation. Administration of an AVP V1a receptor antagonist in the lateral septum blocked mating-induced pair(More)
Green fluorescence protein (GFP)-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is increasingly used in investigation of inter- and intramolecular interactions in living cells. In this report, we present a modified method for FRET quantification in cultured cells using conventional fluorescence microscopy. To reliably measure FRET, three positive(More)
This study examined the role of dopamine (DA) in partner preference (PP) formation in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). The nonspecific DA antagonist haloperidol blocked mating-induced PP, whereas the nonspecific DA agonist apomorphine induced PP without mating. The D2 antagonist eticlopride, but not the D1 antagonist SCH23390, blocked PP,(More)