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The anteroposterior patterning of the central nervous system follows an activation/transformation model, which proposes that a prospective telencephalic fate will be activated by default during the neural induction stage, while this anterior fate could be transformed posteriorly according to caudalization morphogens. Although both extrinsic signals and(More)
A series of benzylidene 2-aminoimidazolones derivatives were synthesized. Most compounds displayed strong inhibitory activity on the proliferation of human HepG2 cells in vitro. The active compounds were further evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against five human cancer cell lines in vitro. Compound 2b(More)
Loss-of-function studies in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) require efficient methodologies for lesion of genes of interest. Here, we introduce a donor-free paired gRNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 knockout strategy (paired-KO) for efficient and rapid gene ablation in hPSCs. Through paired-KO, we succeeded in targeting all genes of interest with high biallelic(More)
Environmental stresses are increasingly acknowledged as core causes of abnormal neural induction leading to neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the mechanism responsible for environmental stress-triggered neural induction defects remains unknown. Here, we report that a spectrum of environmental stresses, including oxidative stress, starvation, and DNA(More)
Both environmental cues and intracellular bioenergetic states profoundly affect intracellular pH (pHi). How a cell responds to pHi changes to maintain bioenergetic homeostasis remains elusive. Here we show that Smad5, a well-characterized downstream component of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling responds to pHi changes. Cold, basic or hypertonic(More)
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