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We used binding assays and other approaches to identify fragments of the Escherichia coli RNAP b subunit involved in the obligatory interaction with the a subunit to form the stable assembly intermediate a 2 b as well as in the interaction to recruit the b H subunit into the a 2 b sub-assembly. We show that two regions of evolutionarily conserved sequence(More)
For many pathogenic bacteria surface attachment is a required first step during host interactions. Attachment can proceed to invasion of host tissue or cells or to establishment of a multicellular bacterial community known as a biofilm. The transition from a unicellular, often motile, state to a sessile, multicellular, biofilm-associated state is one of the(More)
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The MHC-restricted T cell recognition phenomenon remains of central interest in cellular immunology. Recent functional, biochemical, and molecular studies (reviewed in 1-4) provide abundant information concerning distinctive properties of the clonotypic T cell recognition structures expressed in stage III thymo-cytes and virtually all major subclasses of(More)
Solid tumours invariably exhibit regions of hypoxia and up-regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that trigger multiple signal pathways, including those that govern cell proliferation, survival and motility, ultimately contributing to oncogenesis. Although past studies have shown hypoxia-dependent transcriptional and translational induction of(More)
To explore the effects of the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network between TP53INP1 and E-cadherin on the invasion and migration of glioma. TP53INP1 and E-cadherin mRNA and protein were significantly overexpressed in normal brain tissues compared with glioma tissue specimens and correlated with the grades of glioma negatively. The expression of(More)
Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Although its genome has been sequenced, to date there is no report on targeted gene deletion in U. virens and no molecular studies on genetic mechanisms regulating the infection processes of this destructive pathogen. In this study, we attempted to(More)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm formation enables the organism to avoid the host immune system, resist antibiotics, and provide a reservoir for persistent infection. Once the biofilm is established, eradication of the infection becomes difficult. Therefore, strategies against UPEC biofilm are urgently required. In this study, we investigated(More)