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Two proteases (P1 and P2) and a chitinase (C1) were purified from the culture supernatant of Serratia ureilytica TKU013 with squid pen as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The molecular masses of P1, P2 and C1 determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 50 kDa, 50 kDa and 60 kDa, respectively. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, and thermal(More)
Immune parameters, haemocyte lifespan, and gene expressions of lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), integrin β, and α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (0.48 ± 0.05 g) which had been reared at different salinity levels of 2.5‰, 5‰, 15‰, 25‰, and 35‰ for 24 weeks. All(More)
Two cyclic peptides, PF1171A (1) and PF1171C (2), were isolated from okara that had been fermented with unidentified ascomycete OK-128. Their absolute configurations were determined by Marfey's method. These peptides showed paralytic activity against silkworms.
Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-1,3-glucan (βG), known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and subsequently trigger innate immunity. Several seaweed polysaccharides and seaweed extracts increase immune parameters and resistance(More)
The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly(More)
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), representing the current best-practice guidelines and recommendations for care, are supported by systematic review and evidence-based research. CPGs provide an effective and efficient approach to caring for patients and improving quality of care. Recently, the National Health Insurance Administration and National(More)
Invertebrates rely on an innate immune system to combat invading pathogens. The system is initiated in the presence of cell wall components from microbes like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), β-1,3-glucan (βG) and peptidoglycan (PG), altogether known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), via a recognition of pattern recognition protein (PRP) or(More)
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