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In March and early April 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States. During the first few weeks of surveillance, the virus spread worldwide to 30 countries (as of May 11) by human-to-human transmission, causing the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to level 5 of 6. This virus has the(More)
Inspired by previous preprocessing approaches to SMT, this paper proposes a novel, probabilistic approach to reordering which combines the merits of syntax and phrase-based SMT. Given a source sentence and its parse tree, our method generates, by tree operations, an n-best list of reordered inputs, which are then fed to standard phrase-based decoder to(More)
Human disease associated with influenza A subtype H5N1 re-emerged in January, 2003, for the first time since an outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997. Patients with H5N1 disease had unusually high serum concentrations of chemokines (eg, interferon induced protein-10 [IP-10] and monokine induced by interferon gamma [MIG]). Taken together with a previous report that(More)
A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial(More)
Ongoing outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in migratory waterfowl, domestic poultry, and humans in Asia during the summer of 2005 present a continuing, protean pandemic threat. We review the zoonotic source of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses and their genesis from their natural reservoirs. The acquisition of novel traits, including lethality to waterfowl,(More)
This account takes stock of events and involvements, particularly on the avian side of the influenza H5N1 'bird flu' incident in Hong Kong SAR in 1997. It highlights the role of the chicken in the many live poultry markets as the source of the virus for humans. The slaughter of chicken and other poultry across the SAR seemingly averted an influenza(More)
A current view of the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses envisages a gene flow from the aquatic avian reservoir to humans via reassortment in pigs, the hypothetical "mixing vessel." Understanding arising from recent H5N1 influenza outbreaks in Hong Kong since 1997 and the isolation of avian H9N2 virus from humans raises alternative options for the(More)
The genome organization and expression strategy of the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were predicted using recently published genome sequences. Fourteen putative open reading frames were identified, 12 of which were predicted to be expressed from a nested set of eight subgenomic mRNAs. The synthesis of these mRNAs(More)
Pigs are permissive to both human and avian influenza viruses and have been proposed to be an intermediate host for the genesis of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation of avian viruses. Prospective virological surveillance carried out between March 1998 and June 2000 in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of(More)