Learn More
Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily for which a ligand has not yet been found. In vitro data obtained from various cell lines suggest that TR4 functions as a master regulator to modulate many signaling pathways, yet the in vivo physiological roles of TR4 remain unclear. Here, we report the generation of(More)
PURPOSE High grade bladder cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how exosomes may affect bladder cancer progression could reveal novel therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exosomes derived from human bladder cancer cell lines and the urine of patients with high grade bladder(More)
Angiogenesis is an essential step in initial tumor development and metastasis. Consequently, compounds that inhibit angiogenesis would be useful in treating cancer. A variety of antitumor effects mediated by 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VD) have been reported, one of which is anti-angiogenesis; however, detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We have(More)
Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), through either endogenous or exogenous sources, could induce DNA damage, and accumulation of DNA damage might lead to multistep carcinogenesis. The antioxidative effects of vitamin D have been suggested by epidemiological and many in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies. While exploring the antioxidative(More)
The anti-tumor effect of vitamin D has been well recognized but its translational application is hindered by side effects induced by supra-physiological concentration of vitamin D required for cancer treatment. Thus, exploring the vitamin D tumor suppressive functional mechanism can facilitate improvement of its clinical application. We screened miRNA(More)
Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily with diverse physiological functions. Using TR4 knockout (TR4(-/-)) mice to study its function in cardiovascular diseases, we found reduced cluster of differentiation (CD)36 expression with reduced foam cell formation in TR4(-/-) mice. Mechanistic dissection(More)
The human testicular receptor 2 (TR2) and TR4 orphan receptors are two evolutionarily related proteins belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Numerous TR2 and TR4 variants and homologs have been identified from different species, including vertebrates (e.g. human, murine, rabbit, fish, and amphibian) and invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila, sea urchin,(More)
Inhibition of invasion and metastasis has become a new approach for treatment of advanced prostate cancer in which secondary hormone therapy has failed. Accumulating evidence indicates that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VD) suppresses prostate cancer progression by inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying(More)
Adhesion of circulating prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the microvascular endothelium is a critical step during cancer metastasis. To study PCa cell rolling and adhesion behavior, we developed a dynamic flow-based microtube system to mimic the microvascular environment. We found that PCa cell rolling capacity is mediated by E-selectin and can be enhanced by(More)
Whereas hydroxyflutamide (HF) has been used as an antiandrogen to block androgen-stimulated prostate tumor growth, the antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome that allows antiandrogens to stimulate prostate tumor growth still occurs in many patients treated with androgen ablation therapy. This was previously explained by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR)(More)