Learn More
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) governs cell growth and proliferation by mediating the mitogen- and nutrient-dependent signal transduction that regulates messenger RNA translation. We identified phosphatidic acid (PA) as a critical component of mTOR signaling. In our study, mitogenic stimulation of mammalian cells led to a phospholipase D-dependent(More)
Locomotor activity is a polygenic trait that varies widely among inbred strains of mice (). To characterize the role of D2 dopamine receptors in locomotion, we generated F2 hybrid (129/Sv x C57BL/6) D2 dopamine receptor (D2R)-deficient mice by gene targeting and investigated the contribution of genetic background to open-field activity and rotarod(More)
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used reporter in gene expression and protein localization studies. GFP is a stable protein; this property allows its accumulation and easy detection in cells. However, this stability also limits its application in studies that require rapid reporter turnover. We created a destabilized GFP for use in such(More)
Exosomes are secreted organelles that have the same topology as the cell and bud outward (outward is defined as away from the cytoplasm) from endosome membranes or endosome-like domains of plasma membrane. Here we describe an exosomal protein-sorting pathway in Jurkat T cells that selects cargo proteins on the basis of both higher-order oligomerization (the(More)
PEX19 is a chaperone and import receptor for newly synthesized, class I peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). PEX19 binds these PMPs in the cytoplasm and delivers them to the peroxisome for subsequent insertion into the peroxisome membrane, indicating that there may be a PEX19 docking factor in the peroxisome membrane. Here we show that PEX3 is required for(More)
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1alpha and nsp1beta subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1alpha and nsp1beta. Cleavage sites between nsp1alpha/nsp1beta and nsp1beta/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time(More)
Exosomes are secreted, single membrane organelles of approximately 100 nm diameter. Their biogenesis is typically thought to occur in a two-step process involving (1) outward vesicle budding at limiting membranes of endosomes (outward = away from the cytoplasm), which generates intralumenal vesicles, followed by (2) endosome-plasma membrane fusion, which(More)
The human miR-29 family of microRNAs has three mature members, miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. miR-29s are encoded by two gene clusters. Binding sites for several transcriptional factors have been identified in the promoter regions of miR-29 genes. The miR-29 family members share a common seed region sequence and are predicted to target largely overlapping(More)
ENOD40, an early nodulin gene, is expressed following inoculation with Rhizobium meliloti or by adding R. meliloti-produced nodulation (Nod) factors or the plant hormone cytokinin to uninoculated roots. We isolated two MsENOD40 clones, designated MsENOD40-1 and MsENOD40-2, with distinct promoters from an alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv Chief) genomic library.(More)
Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression to allow for DNA repair. Studies in fission yeast implicate members of the Rad family of checkpoint proteins, which includes Rad17, Rad1, Rad9 and Hus1, as key early-response elements during the activation of both the DNA damage and replication checkpoints. Here we(More)