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Toxigenic strains of Clostridium difficile have been reported to produce both toxins A and B nearly always, and nontoxigenic strains have been reported to produce neither of these toxins. Recent studies indicate that it is not always true. We established a PCR assay to differentiate toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive (toxin A-, toxin B+) strains from both(More)
Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors have been proposed to reduce lung injury and lethal toxicity. The mechanisms responsible for the effects of PTK inhibitors remain obscure. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether genistein, a specific inhibitor of PTK, inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation during acute lung injury(More)
The dogma that ampC genes are located exclusively on the chromosome was dominant until about 10 years ago. Since 1989 over 15 different plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamases have been reported from several countries. Most of these enzymes evolved in two clusters. The major cluster includes several enzymes with a high similarity to CMY-2, which is the closest(More)
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative rod and is isolated from soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions. The species have pigmented and nonpigmented colony types. Infections caused by nonpigmented strains are rare. We report on two cases of infection caused by both pigmented and nonpigmented strains of C. violaceum. Two 24-year-old Korea(More)
Gram-negative bacilli with acquired metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) production have been increasingly reported in some countries, necessitating their detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Hodge test and those of the imipenem (IPM)-EDTA, ceftazidime (CAZ)-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), and CAZ-sodium mercaptoacetic acid (SMA)(More)
Scrub typhus became a well recognized infectious disease threat to military operations in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Early diagnosis and treatment with tetracycline or chloramphenicol dramatically reduces the mortality and morbidity of this disease. Korea is a newly recognized scrub typhus endemic country. We report our experience with 189(More)
A plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase conferring extended broad spectrum resistance including cephamycins was identified in a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a patient's wound. Strains harbouring the plasmid pMVP-1 were resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins of all generations (parenteral and new oral compounds) cephamycins, aztreonam, tetracycline,(More)
A plasmidic beta-lactamase which hydrolyzed cephamycins was first detected and reported in 1989. At that time its description was restricted to phenotypic characteristics. We analyzed nucleotide sequence of its gene and explored it genetic relationship with other bla genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of the blaCMY-1 product was compared with those of(More)
The resistance mechanisms of more than 2,000 aminoglycoside-resistant gram-negative aerobic bacteria were estimated by a method that assigned a biochemical mechanism based on susceptibility to selected aminoglycosides. Strains from hospitals in Japan, Formosa, and Korea (the Far East) were compared with strains from Chile and the United States. Of the(More)