Yevgeny Daikhin

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The flux through different segments of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was measured in rat brain synaptosomes with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using either deuterated glutamine or [13C]aspartate. The flux between 2-oxoglutarate and oxaloacetate was estimated to be 3.14 and 4.97 nmol/min/mg protein with and without glucose, respectively. These values(More)
Intrasynaptic [glutamate] must be kept low in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio after the release of transmitter glutamate. This is accomplished by rapid uptake of glutamate into astrocytes, which convert glutamate into glutamine. The latter then is released to neurons, which, via mitochondrial glutaminase, form the glutamate that is used for(More)
Glutamic acid is an important excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain. Two key goals of brain amino acid handling are to maintain a very low intrasynaptic concentration of glutamic acid and also to provide the system with precursors from which to synthesize glutamate. The intrasynaptic glutamate level must be kept low to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio(More)
In many epileptic patients, anticonvulsant drugs either fail adequately to control seizures or they cause serious side effects. An important adjunct to pharmacologic therapy is the ketogenic diet, which often improves seizure control, even in patients who respond poorly to medications. The mechanisms that explain the therapeutic effect are incompletely(More)
Children with hypoglycemia due to recessive loss of function mutations of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel can develop hypoglycemia in response to protein feeding. We hypothesized that amino acids might stimulate insulin secretion by unknown mechanisms, because the K(ATP) channel-dependent pathway of insulin secretion is defective. We(More)
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is regulated by both positive (leucine and ADP) and negative (GTP and ATP) allosteric factors. We hypothesized that the phosphate potential of beta-cells regulates the sensitivity of leucine stimulation. These predictions were tested by measuring leucine-stimulated insulin secretion in perifused rat islets following glucose(More)
The aim was to study the extent to which leucine furnishes alpha-NH2 groups for glutamate synthesis via branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase. The transfer of N from leucine to glutamate was determined by incubating astrocytes in a medium containing [15N]leucine and 15 unlabeled amino acids; isotopic abundance was measured with gas chromatography-mass(More)
Our objective was to study brain amino acid metabolism in response to ketosis. The underlying hypothesis is that ketosis is associated with a fundamental change of brain amino acid handling and that this alteration is a factor in the anti-epileptic effect of the ketogenic diet. Specifically, we hypothesize that brain converts ketone bodies to acetyl-CoA and(More)
The efficacy of ifosfamide (IFO), an antineoplastic drug, is severely limited by a high incidence of nephrotoxicity of unknown etiology. We hypothesized that inhibition of complex I (C-I) by chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), a metabolite of IFO, is the chief cause of nephrotoxicity, and that agmatine (AGM), which we found to augment mitochondrial oxidative(More)
Stable isotopes were used to measure both the rate of GABA formation by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the rate of utilization by GABA-transaminase (GABA-T). The initial rate of GABA accumulation, determined with either [2-15N]glutamine or [2H5]glutamine as precursor, was 0.3-0.4 nmol/min/mg of protein. Addition of the calcium ionophore A23187(More)