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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous studies have indicated that both methamphetamine (MA) and ischemia/reperfusion injuries involve reactive oxygen species formation and activation of apoptotic mechanism. That MA could have a synergistic or additive effect with stroke-induced brain damage is possible. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6) and its receptors are expressed in adult and fetal brain. Receptors for BMP6 are upregulated in adult brain after injury, leading to the suggestion that BMP6 is involved in the physiological response to neuronal injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a neuroprotective(More)
We have previously demonstrated that intranigral transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue and nigrostriatal administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) restores striatal dopamine input in hemiparkinsonian rats. Since it has been found that GDNF is highly expressed in fetal kidney, we examined the possibility that(More)
We have previously reported that intracerebral administration of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) reduces the extent of middle cerebral arterial (MCA) ligation-induced cortical infarction in rats. Recent studies have shown that application of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D3) enhances GDNF mRNA expression in vitro. The purpose of the(More)
Procurement of multipotential neuroglial stem cells is possible with the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Stem cells will differentiate into neurons and glia upon the removal of EGF from the culture medium. We have previously characterized the neuronal differentiation of stem cells derived from long-term cultured nonpassage neurospheres. In the(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, has been shown to have trophic activity on dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies indicate that GDNF can protect the cerebral hemispheres from damage induced by middle cerebral arterial ligation. We found that such neuroprotective(More)
The physical repair and restoration of a completely damaged pathway in the brain has not been achieved previously. In a previous study, using excitatory amino acid bridging and fetal neural transplantation, we demonstrated that a bridged mesencephalic transplant in the substantia nigra generated an artificial nerve pathway that reinnervated the striatum of(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1, also known as GDNFR-alpha) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein of the GFRalpha family, which binds glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor [Jing S. et al. (1996) Cell 85, 1113-1124; Treanor J. J. et al. (1996) Nature 382, 80-83], a survival factor for several populations of(More)
Epidermal growth factor responsive (EGFr) neural progenitor (NP) cells have been shown to be a potential alternative tissue source for neural transplantation and for developmental study. We have shown that nonpassaged EGFr NP cells can self-renew for 2 years in neurospheres and can robustly differentiate into glia and a number of neuronal cell types. We are(More)