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BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged with highly contagious and life-threatening characteristics in 2002, remains a potential risk for future outbreaks. Membrane (M) and envelope (E) proteins are major structural proteins of the SARS-CoV. The M protein has been determined as a protective antigen in humoral(More)
In March and early April 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States. The virus spreads worldwide by human to human transmission. Within a few weeks, it reached a pandemic level. The virus is a novel reassorment virus. It contains gene fragments of influenza virus of swine, avian and human emerged from a(More)
Fifty years ago, a great achievement in life science occurred in China—the complete synthesis of crystalline bovine insulin—which gave Chinese scientists a sense of great elation and pride. Insulin (Fig. 1) is a hormone secreted by β cells in pancreas. Before the clinical application of insulin, diabetes was a feared disease that commonly led to death.(More)
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