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BACKGROUND The treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma has been revolutionised by targeted therapy with drugs that block angiogenesis. So far, no phase 3 randomised trials comparing the effectiveness of one targeted agent against another have been reported. We did a randomised phase 3 study comparing axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation(More)
Cell transplantation using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to alleviate neurological deficits has recently become the focus of research in regenerative medicine. Evidence suggests that secretion of various growth-promoting substances likely plays an important role in functional recovery against neurological diseases. In an attempt to identify a possible(More)
Renal transplantation (RTx) recipients have a high incidence of cancer, including transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Posttransplantation urologic malignancies still present a challenge for transplant surgeons. Using the Dialysis and Transplant Registry of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, a total of 55 cancers were diagnosed in 52 RTx recipients between(More)
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been used to treat ischemic stroke. However, scientific evidence related to its effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is largely unclear. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its physiological benefits. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on(More)
Japanese encephalitis is characterized by profound neuronal destruction/dysfunction and concomitant microgliosis/astrogliosis. Although substantial activation of glia is observed in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced Japanese encephalitis, the inflammatory responses and consequences of astrocytes and microglial activation after JEV infection are not(More)
In traditional Chinese medicine, Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (Chuan Xiong) and its active ingredient tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and to relieve various neurological symptoms such as ischemic deficits. However, scientific evidence related to their effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is(More)
Cellular inflammatory response plays an important role in ischemic brain injury and anti-inflammatory treatments in stroke are beneficial. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke. However, its effectiveness and its precise modes of neuroprotective action remain(More)
Redox-active metals are of paramount importance for biological functions. Their impact and cellular activities participate in the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the central nervous system (CNS), including inflammatory responses. Manganese is an essential trace element and it is required for normal biological activities and ubiquitous(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated angiogenesis-targeted sunitinib therapy in a randomized, double-blind trial of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive sunitinib 37.5 mg/d continuously or placebo. Patients also received oral(More)
The substantial activation of microglia in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced Japanese encephalitis found in numerous studies demonstrates that the disease pathogenesis involves bystander damage caused by microglia-released mediators. Previously, we reported that microglia synthesized and secreted bioactive mediators with neurotoxic potential into(More)