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An in vitro ischemia model (oxygen, glucose, and serum deprivation) is used to investigate the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for cerebral ischemia. We have previously demonstrated that supernatants derived from ischemic microglia can protect ischemic brain cells by releasing GDNF and TGF-beta1. In the present study, we investigate(More)
Microglia-derived protection of brain cells (microglia, astrocytes, and neurons) during in vitro ischemic stress (deprivation of glucose, oxygen, and serum) was determined. Trypan blue exclusion assay, immunoblocking assay, Western blot analysis, and ELISA assay were used to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the microglia-derived(More)
BACKGROUND Bowel obstruction is a common cause of abdominal emergency, since the patients are at increased risk of septicemia resulting in high mortality rate. While the compartmentalized changes in enteric microfloral population and augmentation of bacterial translocation (BT) have already been reported using experimental obstruction models, alterations in(More)
An in vitro ischemia model was used to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the ischemia-induced neuronal cell death. Additionally, the neuronal protective mechanisms of anti-apoptotic drugs against ischemia were also evaluated. In this study, the primary neuronal cultures were incubated in an anoxic chamber with 95% of N2 and 5% of CO2 for(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies of Giardia lamblia outbreaks have indicated that 40-80% of infected patients experience long-lasting functional gastrointestinal disorders after parasitic clearance. Our aim was to assess changes in the intestinal barrier and spatial distribution of commensal bacteria in the post-clearance phase of Giardia infection. METHODS Mice(More)
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