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Alefacept, an immunomodulatory recombinant fusion protein composed of the first extracellular domain of LFA-3 fused to the human IgG1 hinge, C(H)2, and C(H)3 domains, has recently been shown in phase II and III clinical trials to safely reduce disease expression in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Alefacept modulates the function of and selectively(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is a multifunctional cytokine known to regulate cellular functions in contexts of injury and disease through its receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14). Although many of the processes and downstream signals(More)
Angiogenic regulators modulate endothelial cell functions, including proliferation, migration, secretion, and adhesion, through their action on endothelial cells or other cell types. TWEAK, a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor family, appears to be a pro-angiogenic agent on the basis of previous studies demonstrating its ability to induce(More)
B cell activating factor (BAFF), a ligand belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays a critical role in regulating survival and activation of peripheral B cell populations and has been associated with autoimmune disease. BAFF is known to interact with three receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, that have distant similarities with other receptors(More)
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of related receptors and ligands contains a rich collection of molecules that are important players in a broad spectrum of biological systems. While several family members are critical for development and function of the immune system, providing both activation and death signals, other members are involved in(More)
Interaction of CD8 (CD8alphaalpha or CD8alphabeta) with the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (pMHCI) is critical for the development and function of cytolytic T cells. Although the crystal structure of CD8alphaalpha.pMHCI complex revealed that two symmetric CD8alpha subunits interact with pMHCI asymmetrically, with one subunit engaged(More)
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs) are pattern recognition molecules that are found in insects and mammals and are critical for innate immune responses. PGRPs bind peptidoglycan, a ubiquitous component of bacterial cell walls, and are involved in killing bacteria, degrading peptidoglycan, and initiating host defense reactions. Relatively(More)
Inflammation participates in tissue repair through multiple mechanisms including directly regulating the cell fate of resident progenitor cells critical for successful regeneration. Upon surveying target cell types of the TNF ligand TWEAK, we observed that TWEAK binds to all progenitor cells of the mesenchymal lineage and induces NF-kappaB activation and(More)
BAFF (B cell activating factor of the TNF family, also known as BlyS and TALL-1), a TNF family cytokine critical for the development and function of B cells, has been reported to bind to three receptors, BCMA (B cell maturation protein), TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML [calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand] interactor), and BAFFR (BAFF receptor),(More)
B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF/BLys) plays a critical role in B cell survival and immune responses through its three receptors: BAFF receptor (BAFF-R/BR3), transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) and B cell maturation antigen (BCMA). Using specific antibodies, we have(More)