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DNA immunizations with glycoprotein 120 (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) usually require boosting with protein or viral vaccines to achieve optimal efficacy. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that mice immunized with DNA encoding gp120 fused with proinflammatory chemoattractants of immature dendritic cells, such as beta-defensin 2,(More)
A live enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolate designated, EV71/E59, with genotype B4 produced in Vero cells and purified over a sucrose gradient was used as the immunogen to generate EV71-specific murine monoclonal antibodies. Four hybridoma clones derived from the fusion of splenocytes of EV71/E59-preimmunized BALB/c (H-2(d)) mice and the NS-1 myeloma cells that(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in(More)
Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) is sufficient to transform immortalized rodent fibroblasts. A putative docking site for the PI3-K kinase (Y(590)-X-X-M(593)) in the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane domain of the JSRV Env is a major determinant of viral-induced cell transformation. Akt is constitutively phosphorylated in rodent fibroblasts(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections in children manifest as exanthema and are most commonly known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Because it can cause severe neurological complications like poliomyelitis, EV71 has now emerged as an important neurotropic virus in Asia. EV71 virus has been shown to consist of 3 (A, B and C) genotypes and many(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), an emerging neurotropic virus and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD). These viruses have become a serious public health threat in the Asia Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccines have been developed, evaluated in human clinical trials and were found to(More)
Although several factors participating in enterovirus 71 (EV71) entry and replication had been reported, the precise mechanisms associated with these events are far from clear. In the present study, we showed that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key element associated with EV71 entry and replication in a human rhabdomyosarcoma of RD cells. Inhibition of(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus (CVA) are the most common causative factors for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and neurological disorders in children. Lack of a reliable animal model is an issue in investigating EV71-induced disease manifestation in humans, and the current clinical therapies are symptomatic. We generated a novel(More)
Identification of HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes is important to study RSV-induced immunity and illness. We algorithmically analyzed the sequence of the fusion protein (F) of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and generated synthetic peptides that can potentially bind to HLA-A*0201. Four out of the twenty-five 9-mer peptides tested: peptides 3 (F33-41),(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and T regulatory (Treg) cells play a crucial role in maintaining the tolerance needed to prevent the onset of autoimmunity that leads to the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Various experimental studies have shown that human DC subsets are involved in the induction of anergy in T cells and in the differentiation of(More)