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BACKGROUND The treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma has been revolutionised by targeted therapy with drugs that block angiogenesis. So far, no phase 3 randomised trials comparing the effectiveness of one targeted agent against another have been reported. We did a randomised phase 3 study comparing axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation(More)
Cell transplantation using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to alleviate neurological deficits has recently become the focus of research in regenerative medicine. Evidence suggests that secretion of various growth-promoting substances likely plays an important role in functional recovery against neurological diseases. In an attempt to identify a possible(More)
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been used to treat ischemic stroke. However, scientific evidence related to its effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is largely unclear. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its physiological benefits. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on(More)
In traditional Chinese medicine, Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (Chuan Xiong) and its active ingredient tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and to relieve various neurological symptoms such as ischemic deficits. However, scientific evidence related to their effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is(More)
Redox-active metals are of paramount importance for biological functions. Their impact and cellular activities participate in the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the central nervous system (CNS), including inflammatory responses. Manganese is an essential trace element and it is required for normal biological activities and ubiquitous(More)
Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease by producing excessive proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Luteolin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant, has potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of(More)
Inflammatory and oxidative events are present in neurodegenerative disorders and appear to contribute to initiation and/or progression of the disease. Within the brain, redox-active metals, such as manganese, play an important role as components of proteins essential for neural function. However, increasing evidence implies its participation in(More)
BACKGROUND Statins have therapeutic benefits for the management of several disorders. A short-term course of a high-dose statin pretreatment has demonstrated neuroprotective effects against neurological diseases. However, the molecular basis underlying the neuroprotective action of statins remains unclear. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether a short-term(More)
Energy failure and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia. Here, we report a potential link between cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) activation and energy failure/oxidative stress-induced astrocyte damage involving reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), Src, Raf, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase(More)
The substantial activation of microglia in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced Japanese encephalitis found in numerous studies demonstrates that the disease pathogenesis involves bystander damage caused by microglia-released mediators. Previously, we reported that microglia synthesized and secreted bioactive mediators with neurotoxic potential into(More)