Yemonja Smalls

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The Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) is a 52-item respondent-based behavior rating instrument for self-injurious, stereotypic, and aggressive/destructive behavior in mental retardation and other developmental disabilities. Items are rated on a frequency scale and a severity scale. The BPI-01 was administered by interviewing direct care staff of 432(More)
Functional assessment is a method to identify the relationships between a behavior of interest and an individual's environment. Traditional methods for functional assessment have relied on experimental techniques in which analog sessions are designed to replicate conditions in the individual's environment. However, these techniques can be time-consuming,(More)
We conducted a 10 year review of the literature pertaining to psychopharmacology and mental retardation. Studies were included or excluded from the review based on meeting one or more of the methodological criteria normally considered fundamental for sound scientific research. The vast majority of studies conducted in the last 10 years in this area had(More)
The present study examined the convergent validity of the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale, a behavioural checklist for assessing variables maintaining aberrant behaviour, with analogue functional analyses and the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS). The two checklists were more highly correlated with each other than either checklist with(More)
Reinforcement is a cornerstone for treating adaptive skills and eliminating problem behaviors for persons evincing mental retardation. To effectively use reinforcement, professionals must find reinforcers that are most effective for each individual. Establishing reinforcers is particularly important for persons functioning in the severe and profound ranges(More)
Three treatment approaches were evaluated for functional skill acquisition in individuals with severe and profound mental retardation. The control condition comprised the standard treatment protocol: verbal prompting, modeling, and physical guidance. The first condition added the components of staff training, feedback, and edible reinforcement for clients.(More)
Systematically developing methods of reinforcement for persons with severe and profound mental retardation has only recently received a good deal of attention. This topic is important since professionals in the field often have difficulty identifying sufficient numbers of positive stimuli. Snoezelen equipment as reinforcement for individuals with severe and(More)
The efficacy of two treatment approaches was compared for functional skill acquisition in individuals with severe and profound mental retardation. Participants included 22 residents from a large developmental center (Pinecrest) in central Louisiana. Treatment including staff training, feedback, and edible reinforcement in addition to prompting, modeling,(More)
Metoclopramide is an anti-emetic medication that has been associated with movement disorders such as extra-pyramidal reactions and tardive dyskinesia (TD). Reports of these reactions have been documented in the general population, but investigations of side effects in persons with mental retardation are scant. Given the high incidence of gastrointestinal(More)
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