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The XlHbox 8 homeodomain protein of Xenopus and STF-1, its mammalian homolog, are selectively expressed by beta cells of adult mouse pancreatic islets, where they are likely to regulate insulin expression. We sought to determine whether the expression of the homeobox protein/s during mouse embryonic development was specific to beta cells or, alternatively,(More)
Pancreatic islets are enveloped by a sheath of Schwann cells, the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The fact that Schwann cells of the PNS become reactive and express nerve growth factor (NGF) and other growth factors following axotomy suggested the possibility that peri-islet Schwann cells could become activated by islet injury. To test(More)
The ability of the adult pancreas to generate new insulin (beta) cells has been controversial because of difficulties in unequivocally identifying the precursor population. We recently determined that beta cells were generated during development from precursors that expressed the homeodomain-containing transcription factor pancreas duodenum homeobox gene-1(More)
Although glucagon (GLU) plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, its role in the regulation of fetal growth and maturation is poorly understood. These issues were examined in a line of mice with a global deletion of the GLU receptor (Gcgr-/-), which are characterized by lower blood glucose levels and by alpha- and delta-cell hyperplasia in adults.(More)
Whereas it is believed that the pancreatic duct contains endocrine precursors, the presence of insulin progenitor cells residing in islets remain controversial. We tested whether pancreatic islets of adult mice contain precursor beta-cells that initiate insulin synthesis during aging and after islet injury. We used bigenic mice in which the activation of an(More)
PURPOSE Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic factor that induces extracellular matrix (ECM) production and angiogenesis, two processes involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we examined whether insulin therapy or a CTGF-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) administered to diabetic rats decreased the levels of CTGF and of(More)
We previously reported that new beta cells differentiated in pancreatic islets of mice in which diabetes was produced by injection of a high dose of the beta cell toxin streptozotocin (SZ), which produces hyperglycemia due to rapid and massive beta cell death. After SZ-mediated elimination of existing beta cells, a population of insulin containing cells(More)
To date, the role of pancreatic hormones in pancreatic islet growth and differentiation is poorly understood. To address this issue, we examined mice with a disruption in the gene encoding prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). These mice are unable to process proglucagon, prosomatostatin, and other neuroendocrine precursors into mature hormones. Initiation of(More)
We have investigated the mitogenic effect of three mutant forms of human insulin on insulin-producing beta cells of the developing pancreas. We examined transgenic embryonic and adult mice expressing (i) human [AspB10]-proinsulin/insulin ([AspB10]ProIN/IN), produced by replacement of histidine by aspartic acid at position 10 of the B chain and characterized(More)