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Adipose tissue is a metabolically responsive endocrine organ that secretes a myriad of adipokines. Antidiabetic drugs such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists target adipose tissue gene expression and correct hyperglycemia via whole-body insulin sensitization. The mechanism by which altered gene expression in adipose tissue(More)
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, not all obese individuals are insulin resistant, which confounds our understanding of the mechanistic link between these conditions. We conducted transcriptome analyses on 835 obese subjects with mean BMI of 48.8, on which we have(More)
siRNAs mediate sequence-specific gene silencing in cultured mammalian cells but also silence unintended transcripts. Many siRNA off-target transcripts match the guide-strand "seed region," similar to the way microRNAs match their target sites. The extent to which this seed-matched, microRNA-like, off-target silencing affects the specificity of therapeutic(More)
Selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) modulators (SPPARγMs) have been actively pursued as the next generation of insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic drugs, because the currently marketed PPARγ full agonists, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, have been reported to produce serious adverse effects among patients with type 2 diabetes(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Widespread use of PPARgamma agonists has been prevented due to adverse effects including weight gain, edema, and increased risk of congestive heart failure. Selective PPARgamma modulators (SPPARgammaMs) have been identified that have(More)
FGF21 is a novel secreted protein with robust anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherogenic activities in preclinical species. In the current study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways downstream of FGF21 following acute administration of the growth factor to mice. Focusing on adipose tissues, we identified FGF21-mediated downstream(More)
BACKGROUND Inference of causal regulators responsible for gene expression changes under different conditions is of great importance but remains rather challenging. To date, most approaches use direct binding targets of transcription factors (TFs) to associate TFs with expression profiles. However, the low overlap between binding targets of a TF and the(More)
As an important risk factor for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection can induce cirrhosis and HCC. But, the molecular mechanisms of HCV-induced transformation remain largely unknown. In this study, first, we identified the dysfunctional protein interaction networks in cirrhosis and HCC based on the gene expression profiles of 19(More)
The use of the thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizers rosiglitazone and pioglitazone for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in recent years has proven to be effective in helping patients resume normal glycemic control. However, their use is often associated with undesirable side effects including peripheral edema, congestive heart failure and weight(More)
Similar efficacy of the cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) and the bisphosphonate alendronate (ALN) in reducing bone turnover markers and increasing bone mineral density in spine and hip were previously demonstrated in ovariectomized (OVX)-monkeys treated for 20 months in prevention mode. Here, we profiled RNA from tibial metaphysis and diaphysis of the(More)